Akkadian language

  • akkadian
    𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑
    akkadû
    p1050578 louvre obélisque de manishtusu détail rwk.jpg
    akkadian language inscription on the obelisk of manishtushu
    native toassyria and babylon (modern-day iraq)
    regionmesopotamia
    erac. 2500 – 600 bc; academic or liturgical use until ad 100
    language family
    afro-asiatic
    • semitic
      • east semitic
        • akkadian
    writing system
    sumero-akkadian cuneiform
    official status
    official language in
    initially akkad (central mesopotamia); lingua franca of the middle east and egypt in the late bronze and early iron ages.
    language codes
    akk
    iso 639-3akk
    akka1240[1]
    this article contains ipa phonetic symbols. without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of unicode characters. for an introductory guide on ipa symbols, see help:ipa.

    akkadian (ən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 uriki)[2][3] is an extinct east semitic language that was spoken in ancient mesopotamia (akkad, assyria, isin, larsa and babylonia) (all in modern-day iraq) from the third millennium bc until its gradual replacement by akkadian-influenced old aramaic among mesopotamians by the 8th century bc.

    it is the earliest attested semitic language.[4] it used the cuneiform script, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, sumerian (which is a language isolate). akkadian is named after the city of akkad, a major centre of mesopotamian civilization during the akkadian empire (c. 2334–2154 bc).

    the mutual influence between sumerian and akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a sprachbund.[5]

    akkadian proper names were first attested in sumerian texts from around the mid 3rd-millennium bc.[6] from about the 25th or 24th century bc, texts fully written in akkadian begin to appear. by the 10th century bc, two variant forms of the language were in use in assyria and babylonia, known as assyrian and babylonian respectively. the bulk of preserved material is from this later period, corresponding to the near eastern iron age. in total, hundreds of thousands of texts and text fragments have been excavated, covering a vast textual tradition of mythological narrative, legal texts, scientific works, correspondence, political and military events, and many other examples.

    akkadian (in its assyrian and babylonian varieties) was the native language of the mesopotamian empires (akkadian empire, old assyrian empire, babylonia, middle assyrian empire) throughout the later bronze age, and akkadian became the lingua franca of much of the ancient near east by the time of the bronze age collapse. its decline began duing the iron age, during the neo-assyrian empire, by about the 8th century bc (tiglath-pileser iii), in favour of old aramaic. by the hellenistic period, the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in assyria and babylonia. the last known akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century ad.[7] mandaic and assyrian are two (northwest semitic) neo-aramaic languages that retain some akkadian vocabulary and grammatical features.[8]

    akkadian is a fusional language with grammatical case; and like all semitic languages, akkadian uses the system of consonantal roots. the kültepe texts, which were written in old assyrian, include hittite loanwords and names, which constitute the oldest record of any indo-european language.[9]

  • classification
  • history and writing
  • phonetics and phonology
  • grammar
  • vocabulary
  • sample text
  • akkadian literature
  • notes
  • sources
  • further reading
  • external links

Akkadian
𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑
akkadû
P1050578 Louvre Obélisque de Manishtusu détail rwk.JPG
Akkadian language inscription on the obelisk of Manishtushu
Native toAssyria and Babylon (modern-day Iraq)
RegionMesopotamia
Erac. 2500 – 600 BC; academic or liturgical use until AD 100
Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform
Official status
Official language in
initially Akkad (central Mesopotamia); lingua franca of the Middle East and Egypt in the late Bronze and early Iron Ages.
Language codes
akk
ISO 639-3akk
akka1240[1]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Akkadian (ən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI)[2][3] is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) (all in modern-day Iraq) from the third millennium BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the 8th century BC.

It is the earliest attested Semitic language.[4] It used the cuneiform script, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian is named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334–2154 BC).

The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a Sprachbund.[5]

Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from around the mid 3rd-millennium BC.[6] From about the 25th or 24th century BC, texts fully written in Akkadian begin to appear. By the 10th century BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as Assyrian and Babylonian respectively. The bulk of preserved material is from this later period, corresponding to the Near Eastern Iron Age. In total, hundreds of thousands of texts and text fragments have been excavated, covering a vast textual tradition of mythological narrative, legal texts, scientific works, correspondence, political and military events, and many other examples.

Akkadian (in its Assyrian and Babylonian varieties) was the native language of the Mesopotamian empires (Akkadian Empire, Old Assyrian Empire, Babylonia, Middle Assyrian Empire) throughout the later Bronze Age, and Akkadian became the lingua franca of much of the Ancient Near East by the time of the Bronze Age collapse. Its decline began duing the Iron Age, during the Neo-Assyrian Empire, by about the 8th century BC (Tiglath-Pileser III), in favour of Old Aramaic. By the Hellenistic period, the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia. The last known Akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century AD.[7] Mandaic and Assyrian are two (Northwest Semitic) Neo-Aramaic languages that retain some Akkadian vocabulary and grammatical features.[8]

Akkadian is a fusional language with grammatical case; and like all Semitic languages, Akkadian uses the system of consonantal roots. The Kültepe texts, which were written in Old Assyrian, include Hittite loanwords and names, which constitute the oldest record of any Indo-European language.[9]