Aluminium

  • aluminium, 13al
    aluminium-4.jpg
    aluminium
    pronunciation
    • aluminium: m/ (about this soundlisten)
      (min-ee-əm)
    • aluminum: m/ (about this soundlisten)
      (lew-min-əm)
    alternative namealuminum (u.s., canada)
    appearancesilvery gray metallic
    standard atomic weight ar, std(al)26.9815384(3)[1]
    aluminium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    b

    al

    ga
    magnesiumaluminiumsilicon
    atomic number (z)13
    groupgroup 13 (boron group)
    periodperiod 3
    blockp-block
    element category  post-transition metal, [2][a] sometimes considered a metalloid
    electron configuration[ne] 3s2 3p1
    electrons per shell2, 8, 3
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point933.47 k ​(660.32 °c, ​1220.58 °f)
    boiling point2743 k ​(2470 °c, ​4478 °f)
    density (near r.t.)2.70 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)2.375 g/cm3
    heat of fusion10.71 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization284 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity24.20 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2, −1, +1,[4] +2,[5] +3 (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.61
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 577.5 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1816.7 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2744.8 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 143 pm
    covalent radius121±4 pm
    van der waals radius184 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of aluminium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for aluminium
    speed of sound thin rod(rolled) 5000 m/s (at r.t.)
    thermal expansion23.1 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity237 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity26.5 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[6]
    magnetic susceptibility+16.5·10−6 cm3/mol
    young's modulus70 gpa
    shear modulus26 gpa
    bulk modulus76 gpa
    poisson ratio0.35
    mohs hardness2.75
    vickers hardness160–350 mpa
    brinell hardness160–550 mpa
    cas number7429-90-5
    history
    namingafter alumina (aluminium oxide), itself named after mineral alum
    predictionantoine lavoisier (1782)
    discovery and first isolationhans christian Ørsted (1824)
    named byhumphry davy (1812)
    main isotopes of aluminium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    26al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 26mg
    ε 26mg
    γ
    27al 100% stable
    category category: aluminium
    | references

    aluminium (aluminum in american and canadian english) is a chemical element with the symbol al and atomic number 13. it is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. by mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the earth's crust, where it is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon) and also the most abundant metal. occurrence of aluminium decreases in the earth's mantle below, however. the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. aluminium metal is highly reactive, such that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[7]

    aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry[8] and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames.[9] the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.[8]

    despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals.[10] because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.

  • physical characteristics
  • chemistry
  • natural occurrence
  • history
  • etymology
  • production and refinement
  • applications
  • biology
  • environmental effects
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Aluminium, 13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
Aluminium
Pronunciation
Alternative namealuminum (U.S., Canada)
Appearancesilvery gray metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Al)26.9815384(3)[1]
Aluminium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
B

Al

Ga
magnesiumaluminiumsilicon
Atomic number (Z)13
Groupgroup 13 (boron group)
Periodperiod 3
Blockp-block
Element category  Post-transition metal, [2][a] sometimes considered a metalloid
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 3
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
Boiling point2743 K ​(2470 °C, ​4478 °F)
Density (near r.t.)2.70 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)2.375 g/cm3
Heat of fusion10.71 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization284 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.20 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, +1,[4] +2,[5] +3 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.61
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 577.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1816.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2744.8 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 143 pm
Covalent radius121±4 pm
Van der Waals radius184 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of aluminium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for aluminium
Speed of sound thin rod(rolled) 5000 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion23.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity237 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity26.5 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[6]
Magnetic susceptibility+16.5·10−6 cm3/mol
Young's modulus70 GPa
Shear modulus26 GPa
Bulk modulus76 GPa
Poisson ratio0.35
Mohs hardness2.75
Vickers hardness160–350 MPa
Brinell hardness160–550 MPa
CAS Number7429-90-5
History
Namingafter alumina (aluminium oxide), itself named after mineral alum
PredictionAntoine Lavoisier (1782)
Discovery and first isolationHans Christian Ørsted (1824)
Named byHumphry Davy (1812)
Main isotopes of aluminium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
26Al trace 7.17×105 y β+ 26Mg
ε 26Mg
γ
27Al 100% stable
Category Category: Aluminium
| references

Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust, where it is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon) and also the most abundant metal. Occurrence of aluminium decreases in the Earth's mantle below, however. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is highly reactive, such that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[7]

Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry[8] and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames.[9] The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.[8]

Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals.[10] Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.