Antimony

  • antimony, 51sb
    antimony-4.jpg
    antimony
    pronunciation
    • uk: i/
      (an-tə-mə-nee)
    • us: i/
      (an-tə-moh-nee)
    appearancesilvery lustrous gray
    standard atomic weight ar, std(sb)121.760(1)[1]
    antimony in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    as

    sb

    bi
    tinantimonytellurium
    atomic number (z)51
    groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
    periodperiod 5
    blockp-block
    element category  metalloid
    electron configuration[kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 5
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point903.78 k ​(630.63 °c, ​1167.13 °f)
    boiling point1908 k ​(1635 °c, ​2975 °f)
    density (near r.t.)6.697 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)6.53 g/cm3
    heat of fusion19.79 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization193.43 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.23 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 807 876 1011 1219 1491 1858
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.05
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 834 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1594.9 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2440 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 140 pm
    covalent radius139±5 pm
    van der waals radius206 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of antimony
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurerhombohedral
    rhombohedral crystal structure for antimony
    speed of sound thin rod3420 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion11 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity24.4 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity417 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[3]
    magnetic susceptibility−99.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
    young's modulus55 gpa
    shear modulus20 gpa
    bulk modulus42 gpa
    mohs hardness3.0
    brinell hardness294–384 mpa
    cas number7440-36-0
    history
    discoveryarabic alchemists (before ad 815)
    main isotopes of antimony
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    121sb 57.21% stable
    123sb 42.79% stable
    125sb syn 2.7582 y β 125te
    category category: antimony
    | references

    antimony is a chemical element with the symbol sb (from latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (sb2s3). antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the arabic name kohl.[5] metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. the earliest known description of the metal in the west was written in 1540 by vannoccio biringuccio.

    for some time, china has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the xikuangshan mine in hunan. the industrial methods for refining antimony are roasting and reduction with carbon or direct reduction of stibnite with iron.

    the largest applications for metallic antimony are an alloy with lead and tin and the lead antimony plates in lead–acid batteries. alloys of lead and tin with antimony have improved properties for solders, bullets, and plain bearings. antimony compounds are prominent additives for chlorine and bromine-containing fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. an emerging application is the use of antimony in microelectronics.

  • characteristics
  • compounds
  • history
  • production
  • applications
  • precautions
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Antimony, 51Sb
Antimony-4.jpg
Antimony
Pronunciation
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Sb)121.760(1)[1]
Antimony in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
As

Sb

Bi
tinantimonytellurium
Atomic number (Z)51
Groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
Periodperiod 5
Blockp-block
Element category  Metalloid
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point903.78 K ​(630.63 °C, ​1167.13 °F)
Boiling point1908 K ​(1635 °C, ​2975 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.697 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.53 g/cm3
Heat of fusion19.79 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization193.43 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.23 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 807 876 1011 1219 1491 1858
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.05
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 834 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1594.9 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2440 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius139±5 pm
Van der Waals radius206 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of antimony
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for antimony
Speed of sound thin rod3420 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion11 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity24.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity417 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[3]
Magnetic susceptibility−99.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
Young's modulus55 GPa
Shear modulus20 GPa
Bulk modulus42 GPa
Mohs hardness3.0
Brinell hardness294–384 MPa
CAS Number7440-36-0
History
DiscoveryArabic alchemists (before AD 815)
Main isotopes of antimony
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
121Sb 57.21% stable
123Sb 42.79% stable
125Sb syn 2.7582 y β 125Te
Category Category: Antimony
| references

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name kohl.[5] Metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery. The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio.

For some time, China has been the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan. The industrial methods for refining antimony are roasting and reduction with carbon or direct reduction of stibnite with iron.

The largest applications for metallic antimony are an alloy with lead and tin and the lead antimony plates in lead–acid batteries. Alloys of lead and tin with antimony have improved properties for solders, bullets, and plain bearings. Antimony compounds are prominent additives for chlorine and bromine-containing fire retardants found in many commercial and domestic products. An emerging application is the use of antimony in microelectronics.