an explanation of the superscripts and subscripts seen in atomic number notation. atomic number is the number of protons, and therefore also the total positive charge, in the atomic nucleus.
the rutherford–bohr model
of the hydrogen atom
(z = 1
) or a hydrogen-like ion (z > 1
). in this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of the electromagnetic radiation emitted (shown) when an electron jumps from one orbital to another be proportional to the mathematical square of atomic charge (z2
). experimental measurement by henry moseley
of this radiation for many elements (from z = 13 to 92
) showed the results as predicted by bohr. both the concept of atomic number and the bohr model were thereby given scientific credence.
the atomic number or proton number (symbol z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of every atom of that element. the atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element. it is identical to the charge number of the nucleus. in an uncharged atom, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons.
the sum of the atomic number z and the number of neutrons n gives the mass number a of an atom. since protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass (and the mass of the electrons is negligible for many purposes) and the mass defect of nucleon binding is always small compared to the nucleon mass, the atomic mass of any atom, when expressed in unified atomic mass units (making a quantity called the "relative isotopic mass"), is within 1% of the whole number a.
atoms with the same atomic number but different neutron numbers, and hence different mass numbers, are known as isotopes. a little more than three-quarters of naturally occurring elements exist as a mixture of isotopes (see monoisotopic elements), and the average isotopic mass of an isotopic mixture for an element (called the relative atomic mass) in a defined environment on earth, determines the element's standard atomic weight. historically, it was these atomic weights of elements (in comparison to hydrogen) that were the quantities measurable by chemists in the 19th century.
the conventional symbol z comes from the german word zahl meaning number, which, before the modern synthesis of ideas from chemistry and physics, merely denoted an element's numerical place in the periodic table, whose order is approximately, but not completely, consistent with the order of the elements by atomic weights. only after 1915, with the suggestion and evidence that this z number was also the nuclear charge and a physical characteristic of atoms, did the word atomzahl (and its english equivalent atomic number) come into common use in this context.