Bismuth

  • bismuth, 83bi
    bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    bismuth
    pronunciationθ/ (biz-məth)
    appearancelustrous brownish silver
    standard atomic weight ar, std(bi)208.98040(1)[1]
    bismuth in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    sb

    bi

    mc
    leadbismuthpolonium
    atomic number (z)83
    groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
    periodperiod 6
    blockp-block
    element category  post-transition metal
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point544.7 k ​(271.5 °c, ​520.7 °f)
    boiling point1837 k ​(1564 °c, ​2847 °f)
    density (near r.t.)9.78 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)10.05 g/cm3
    heat of fusion11.30 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization179 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.52 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.02
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 703 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1610 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2466 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 156 pm
    covalent radius148±4 pm
    van der waals radius207 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of bismuth
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurerhombohedral[2]
    rhombohedral crystal structure for bismuth
    speed of sound thin rod1790 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity7.97 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity1.29 µΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility−280.1·10−6 cm3/mol[3]
    young's modulus32 gpa
    shear modulus12 gpa
    bulk modulus31 gpa
    poisson ratio0.33
    mohs hardness2.25
    brinell hardness70–95 mpa
    cas number7440-69-9
    history
    discoveryarabic alchemists (before ad 1000)
    main isotopes of bismuth
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    207bi syn 31.55 y β+ 207pb
    208bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 208pb
    209bi 100% 2.01×1019 y α 205tl
    210bi trace 5.012 d β 210po
    α 206tl
    210mbi syn 3.04×106 y it 210bi
    α 206tl
    category category: bismuth
    | references

    bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol bi and atomic number 83. it is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. the free element is 86% as dense as lead. it is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it an iridescent tinge in numerous colours. bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element, and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals.

    bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass that is stable, but in 2003 it was discovered to be extremely weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe.[4][5] because of its tremendously long half-life, bismuth may still be considered stable for almost all purposes.[5]

  • main uses
  • history
  • characteristics
  • chemical compounds
  • occurrence and production
  • applications
  • toxicology and ecotoxicology
  • bioremediation
  • see also
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Bismuth, 83Bi
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Bismuth
Pronunciationθ/ (BIZ-məth)
Appearancelustrous brownish silver
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Bi)208.98040(1)[1]
Bismuth in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Sb

Bi

Mc
leadbismuthpolonium
Atomic number (Z)83
Groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
Periodperiod 6
Blockp-block
Element category  Post-transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point544.7 K ​(271.5 °C, ​520.7 °F)
Boiling point1837 K ​(1564 °C, ​2847 °F)
Density (near r.t.)9.78 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)10.05 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization179 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.02
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 703 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1610 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2466 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius207 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of bismuth
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurerhombohedral[2]
Rhombohedral crystal structure for bismuth
Speed of sound thin rod1790 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity7.97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1.29 µΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility−280.1·10−6 cm3/mol[3]
Young's modulus32 GPa
Shear modulus12 GPa
Bulk modulus31 GPa
Poisson ratio0.33
Mohs hardness2.25
Brinell hardness70–95 MPa
CAS Number7440-69-9
History
DiscoveryArabic alchemists (before AD 1000)
Main isotopes of bismuth
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 208Pb
209Bi 100% 2.01×1019 y α 205Tl
210Bi trace 5.012 d β 210Po
α 206Tl
210mBi syn 3.04×106 y IT 210Bi
α 206Tl
Category Category: Bismuth
| references

Bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it an iridescent tinge in numerous colours. Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element, and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals.

Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass that is stable, but in 2003 it was discovered to be extremely weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe.[4][5] Because of its tremendously long half-life, bismuth may still be considered stable for almost all purposes.[5]