Dysprosium

  • dysprosium, 66dy
    dy chips.jpg
    dysprosium
    pronunciationm/ (proh-zee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(dy)162.500(1)[1]
    dysprosium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    dy

    cf
    terbiumdysprosiumholmium
    atomic number (z)66
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide
    electron configuration[xe] 4f10 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1680 k ​(1407 °c, ​2565 °f)
    boiling point2840 k ​(2562 °c, ​4653 °f)
    density (near r.t.)8.540 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)8.37 g/cm3
    heat of fusion11.06 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization280 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity27.7 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1378 1523 (1704) (1954) (2304) (2831)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (a weakly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.22
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 573.0 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1130 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2200 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 178 pm
    covalent radius192±7 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of dysprosium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for dysprosium
    speed of sound thin rod2710 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansionα, poly: 9.9 µm/(m·k) (r.t.)
    thermal conductivity10.7 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityα, poly: 926 nΩ·m (r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 k
    magnetic susceptibility+103,500·10−6 cm3/mol (293.2 k)[3]
    young's modulusα form: 61.4 gpa
    shear modulusα form: 24.7 gpa
    bulk modulusα form: 40.5 gpa
    poisson ratioα form: 0.247
    vickers hardness410–550 mpa
    brinell hardness500–1050 mpa
    cas number7429-91-6
    history
    discoverylecoq de boisbaudran (1886)
    main isotopes of dysprosium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    154dy syn 3.0×106 y α 150gd
    156dy 0.056% stable
    158dy 0.095% stable
    160dy 2.329% stable
    161dy 18.889% stable
    162dy 25.475% stable
    163dy 24.896% stable
    164dy 28.260% stable
    category category: dysprosium
    | references

    dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol dy and atomic number 66. it is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164dy.

    dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by paul Émile lecoq de boisbaudran, but it was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. dysprosium has relatively few applications where it cannot be replaced by other chemical elements. it is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility () in data storage applications, and as a component of terfenol-d (a magnetostrictive material). soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.

  • characteristics
  • history
  • occurrence
  • production
  • applications
  • precautions
  • references
  • external links

Dysprosium, 66Dy
Dy chips.jpg
Dysprosium
Pronunciationm/ (PROH-zee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Dy)162.500(1)[1]
Dysprosium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Dy

Cf
terbiumdysprosiumholmium
Atomic number (Z)66
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f10 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1680 K ​(1407 °C, ​2565 °F)
Boiling point2840 K ​(2562 °C, ​4653 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.540 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)8.37 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.06 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.7 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1378 1523 (1704) (1954) (2304) (2831)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.22
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 573.0 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1130 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2200 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 178 pm
Covalent radius192±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of dysprosium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for dysprosium
Speed of sound thin rod2710 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 9.9 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
Thermal conductivity10.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 926 nΩ·m (r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 K
Magnetic susceptibility+103,500·10−6 cm3/mol (293.2 K)[3]
Young's modulusα form: 61.4 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 24.7 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 40.5 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.247
Vickers hardness410–550 MPa
Brinell hardness500–1050 MPa
CAS Number7429-91-6
History
DiscoveryLecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Main isotopes of dysprosium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
154Dy syn 3.0×106 y α 150Gd
156Dy 0.056% stable
158Dy 0.095% stable
160Dy 2.329% stable
161Dy 18.889% stable
162Dy 25.475% stable
163Dy 24.896% stable
164Dy 28.260% stable
Category Category: Dysprosium
| references

Dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164Dy.

Dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but it was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium has relatively few applications where it cannot be replaced by other chemical elements. It is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility () in data storage applications, and as a component of Terfenol-D (a magnetostrictive material). Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.