Einsteinium

  • einsteinium, 99es
    quartz vial (9 mm diameter) containing ~300 micrograms of solid 253es. the illumination produced is a result of the intense radiation from 253es.
    einsteinium
    pronunciationm/ (sty-nee-əm)
    appearancesilvery; glows blue in the dark
    mass number[252]
    einsteinium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    ho

    es

    (upt)
    californiumeinsteiniumfermium
    atomic number (z)99
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 7
    blockf-block
    element category  actinide
    electron configuration[rn] 5f11 7s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1133 k ​(860 °c, ​1580 °f)
    boiling point1269 k ​(996 °c, ​1825 °f) (estimated)
    density (near r.t.)8.84 g/cm3
    atomic properties
    oxidation states+2, +3, +4
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.3
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 619 kj/mol
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of einsteinium
    other properties
    natural occurrencesynthetic
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for einsteinium
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    cas number7429-92-7
    history
    namingafter albert einstein
    discoverylawrence berkeley national laboratory (1952)
    main isotopes of einsteinium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    252es syn 471.7 d α 248bk
    ε 252cf
    β 252fm
    253es syn 20.47 d sf
    α 249bk
    254es syn 275.7 d ε 254cf
    β 254fm
    α 250bk
    255es syn 39.8 d β 255fm
    α 251bk
    sf
    category category: einsteinium
    | references

    einsteinium is a synthetic element with the symbol es and atomic number 99. as a member of the actinide series, it is the seventh transuranic element.

    einsteinium was discovered as a component of the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952, and named after albert einstein. its most common isotope einsteinium-253 (half-life 20.47 days) is produced artificially from decay of californium-253 in a few dedicated high-power nuclear reactors with a total yield on the order of one milligram per year. the reactor synthesis is followed by a complex process of separating einsteinium-253 from other actinides and products of their decay. other isotopes are synthesized in various laboratories, but in much smaller amounts, by bombarding heavy actinide elements with light ions. owing to the small amounts of produced einsteinium and the short half-life of its most easily produced isotope, there are currently almost no practical applications for it outside basic scientific research. in particular, einsteinium was used to synthesize, for the first time, 17 atoms of the new element mendelevium in 1955.

    einsteinium is a soft, silvery, paramagnetic metal. its chemistry is typical of the late actinides, with a preponderance of the +3 oxidation state; the +2 oxidation state is also accessible, especially in solids. the high radioactivity of einsteinium-253 produces a visible glow and rapidly damages its crystalline metal lattice, with released heat of about 1000 watts per gram. difficulty in studying its properties is due to einsteinium-253's decay to berkelium-249 and then californium-249 at a rate of about 3% per day. the isotope of einsteinium with the longest half-life, einsteinium-252 (half-life 471.7 days) would be more suitable for investigation of physical properties, but it has proven far more difficult to produce and is available only in minute quantities, and not in bulk.[1] einsteinium is the element with the highest atomic number which has been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, and this was the common short-lived isotope einsteinium-253.[2]

    like all synthetic transuranic elements, isotopes of einsteinium are very radioactive and are considered highly dangerous to health on ingestion.[3]

  • history
  • characteristics
  • synthesis and extraction
  • chemical compounds
  • applications
  • safety
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Einsteinium, 99Es
Quartz vial (9 mm diameter) containing ~300 micrograms of solid 253Es. The illumination produced is a result of the intense radiation from 253Es.
Einsteinium
Pronunciationm/ (STY-nee-əm)
Appearancesilvery; glows blue in the dark
Mass number[252]
Einsteinium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Ho

Es

(Upt)
californiumeinsteiniumfermium
Atomic number (Z)99
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 7
Blockf-block
Element category  Actinide
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f11 7s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1133 K ​(860 °C, ​1580 °F)
Boiling point1269 K ​(996 °C, ​1825 °F) (estimated)
Density (near r.t.)8.84 g/cm3
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+2, +3, +4
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 619 kJ/mol
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of einsteinium
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for einsteinium
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
CAS Number7429-92-7
History
Namingafter Albert Einstein
DiscoveryLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1952)
Main isotopes of einsteinium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
252Es syn 471.7 d α 248Bk
ε 252Cf
β 252Fm
253Es syn 20.47 d SF
α 249Bk
254Es syn 275.7 d ε 254Cf
β 254Fm
α 250Bk
255Es syn 39.8 d β 255Fm
α 251Bk
SF
Category Category: Einsteinium
| references

Einsteinium is a synthetic element with the symbol Es and atomic number 99. As a member of the actinide series, it is the seventh transuranic element.

Einsteinium was discovered as a component of the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952, and named after Albert Einstein. Its most common isotope einsteinium-253 (half-life 20.47 days) is produced artificially from decay of californium-253 in a few dedicated high-power nuclear reactors with a total yield on the order of one milligram per year. The reactor synthesis is followed by a complex process of separating einsteinium-253 from other actinides and products of their decay. Other isotopes are synthesized in various laboratories, but in much smaller amounts, by bombarding heavy actinide elements with light ions. Owing to the small amounts of produced einsteinium and the short half-life of its most easily produced isotope, there are currently almost no practical applications for it outside basic scientific research. In particular, einsteinium was used to synthesize, for the first time, 17 atoms of the new element mendelevium in 1955.

Einsteinium is a soft, silvery, paramagnetic metal. Its chemistry is typical of the late actinides, with a preponderance of the +3 oxidation state; the +2 oxidation state is also accessible, especially in solids. The high radioactivity of einsteinium-253 produces a visible glow and rapidly damages its crystalline metal lattice, with released heat of about 1000 watts per gram. Difficulty in studying its properties is due to einsteinium-253's decay to berkelium-249 and then californium-249 at a rate of about 3% per day. The isotope of einsteinium with the longest half-life, einsteinium-252 (half-life 471.7 days) would be more suitable for investigation of physical properties, but it has proven far more difficult to produce and is available only in minute quantities, and not in bulk.[1] Einsteinium is the element with the highest atomic number which has been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, and this was the common short-lived isotope einsteinium-253.[2]

Like all synthetic transuranic elements, isotopes of einsteinium are very radioactive and are considered highly dangerous to health on ingestion.[3]