Elam

Elam
Haltamti
๐’น๐’„ฌ๐’†ท๐’ถ๐’‹พ
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Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire (in orange) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.
Alternative namesElamites, Susiana
Geographical rangeIran
PeriodPre-Iranic
Dates2700 โ€“ 539 BC
Preceded byProto-Elamite
Followed byAchaemenid Empire

Elam (m/; Elamite: ๐’น๐’„ฌ๐’†ท๐’ถ๐’‹พ haltamti; Sumerian: ๐’‰๐’ˆ ๐’†  NIM.MAki; Hebrew: ืขึตื™ืœึธืสฟรŠlฤm; Old Persian: ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žฉ ลชvja) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East.[1] In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana (US: ษ™/ UK: ษ™/; Ancient Greek: ฮฃฮฟฯ…ฯƒฮนฮฑฮฝฮฎ Sousiฤnแธ—), a name derived from its capital Susa.[2]

Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Sumerian history, where slightly earlier records have been found.[3][4] In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands.[5] Its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally considered a language isolate unrelated to the much later arriving Persian and Iranic languages; however, some linguists hypothesize that Elamite and the Dravidian languages of India belong to the same language family.[6] In accordance with geographical and archaeological matches, some historians argue that the Elamites comprise a large portion of the ancestors of the modern day Lurs,[7][8] whose language, Luri, split from Middle Persian.

Etymology

The Elamite language endonym of Elam as a country appears to have been Haltamti.[9][failed verification]

Exonyms included the Sumerian names NIM.MAki๐’‰๐’ˆ ๐’†  and ELAM, the Akkadian Elamรป (masculine/neuter) and Elamฤซtu (feminine) meant "resident of Susiana, Elamite".[10]

In prehistory, Elam was centered primarily in modern Khuzestฤn and Ilam. The name Khuzestฤn is derived ultimately from the Old Persian Hลซjiya (Old Persian: ๐Žข๐Žบ๐Žฉ) meaning Susa/Elam.[9] In Middle Persian this became Huลบ "Susiana", and in modern Persian Xuz, compounded with the toponymic suffix -stรฅn "place".