Elliott Cresson Medal

Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal, Berliner, 1913.jpg
Elliott Cresson Medal given to Emile Berliner in 1913
CountryUSA
Presented byFranklin Institute
First awarded1875
Last awarded1997

The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848.[1] The endowed award was to be "for some discovery in the Arts and Sciences, or for the invention or improvement of some useful machine, or for some new process or combination of materials in manufactures, or for ingenuity skill or perfection in workmanship."[1] The medal was first awarded in 1875, 21 years after Cresson's death.[1]

The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on an occasional basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella, The Benjamin Franklin Awards.[2] A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the award's lifetime.[3]

YearAwardeeCategoryCitation
1875
William Gibson A. BonwillLife ScienceElectro Magnetic Dental Mallet
1875
Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co.EngineeringWorsted Yarns
1875
Powers & WeightmanEngineeringDrug Manufacturing
1875
William P. TathamInventionPrinting press
1875
Benjamin Chew TilghmanEngineeringSand Blast
1875
Joseph ZentmayerEngineeringMicroscopes and Objectives
1877
John CharltonEngineeringShaft Coupling
1877
P. H. DudleyEngineeringDynomagraph
1878
Henry BowerChemistryInodorous Glycerin
1878
Cyrus Chambers, Jr.EngineeringBolt and rivet clipper
1878
Williams Farr GoodwinEngineeringCompetitive test of mowing machines
1879
Norbert DelandtsheerInventionMachine for Testing Flax
1880
Louis H. SpellierInventionTime Telegraph
1881
W. Woodnut GriscomEngineeringElectric Induction Motor and Battery
1885
Cyprien ChabotEngineeringShoe Sewing Machine
1885
Frederick SiemensEngineeringRegenerative Gas Burner
1886
Patrick Bernard DelanyEngineeringSynchronous Telegraphy
1886
Thaddeus S. C. LoweEngineeringWater Gas Process and Apparatus
1886
Ott & BrewerEngineeringChina and Porcelain Wares
1886
Pratt & Whitney Co.EngineeringSystem of Interchangeable Cut Gears
1886
Robert H. RamsayEngineeringRailway Car Transfer Apparatus
1886
Liberty WalkupInventionAirbrush
1887
Charles F. AlbertEngineeringViolins and Bows
1887
Hugo BilgramEngineeringBevel Gear Cutter
1887
Alfred H. CowlesEngineeringElectric Smelting Furnace
1887
Eugene H. CowlesEngineeringElectric Smelting Furnace
1887
Thomas ShawEngineeringTesting for Mine Gases and system of Mine Signaling
1889
Edward Alfred CowperInventionWriting Telegraph
1889
Ottmar MergenthalerEngineeringLinotype machine
1889
T. Hart RobertsonInventionWriting Telegraph
1889
George Frederick SimondsEngineeringUniversal Rolling Machine
1890
James B. HammondEngineeringTypewriter Improvements
1890
Herman HollerithComputer and Cognitive ScienceElectric Tabulating Device
1890
Mayer Hayes & Co.EngineeringManufacture of files
1891
Stockton BatesEngineeringSpindle Support
1891
James H. BevingtonEngineeringWelding Metal and Spinning and Shaping Tube
1891
Bradley Allen FiskeEngineeringRangefinder
1891
Tinius OlsenEngineeringTesting Machine
1891
Edwin F. ShawEngineeringSpindle Support
1891
Samuel M. VauclainEngineeringCompound Locomotive
1891
George M. Von CulinEngineeringSpindle Support
1892
Philip H. HolmesEngineeringComposition for Journal Bearings
1892
Henry M. HoweEngineeringMetallurgy of Steel
1893
Clifford H. BatchellorEngineeringCompound Locomotive
1893
Frederic Eugene IvesEngineeringColor photography
1893
George E. MarksLife ScienceImprovements in Artificial Limbs
1893
Paul von JankóEngineeringJankó piano keyboard
1894
Nikola TeslaEngineeringAlternating Electric Currents of High Frequency
1895
Henry M. HoweEngineeringExperimental Researches on Steel
1895
James PeckoverInventionStone Sawing Machine
1895
Lester Allan PeltonEngineeringWater Wheel
1896
Patrick Bernard DelanyEngineeringTelegraphy, High speed system
1896
Tolbert LanstonInventionMonotype Machine
1897
Hamilton Y. CastnerEngineeringProcess of electrolytic decomposing of alkaline chlorides
1897
Elisha GrayEngineeringTelautograph
1897
Charles Francis JenkinsInventionPhantoscope projector
1897
Wilhelm Conrad RöntgenPhysicsDiscovery of X-rays
1897
Joseph WilckesInventionEconometer [4]
1898
Wilbur Olin AtwaterEngineeringRespiration Calorimeter
1898
Thomas CorscadenEngineeringAll-Wrought Steel Belt Pulley
1898
Clemens HirschelInventionVenturi Meter
1898
Henri MoissanEngineeringInvestigations with his electric furnace
1898
Edward Bennett RosaEngineeringRespiration Calorimeter
1900
American Cotton CompanyEngineeringRound Lap Bale System
1900
Louis Edward LevyEngineeringMethod and apparatus for acid blast etching of metal plates
1900
Pencoyd Iron WorksEngineeringBridge construction
1900
United States Geological SurveyEarth ScienceExhibit of the USGS
1900
Carl Auer von WelsbachChemistryDiscoveries regarding metallic oxides
1901
Rudolph DieselEngineeringDiesel engine
1901
John S. ForbesChemistryProcess of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1901
Lewis M. HauptEngineeringReaction Breakwater
1901
Mason & Hamlin CompanyEngineeringLiszt Pipe Organ
1901
A. G. WaterhouseEngineeringProcess of automatically heating and sterilizing fluids
1902
Charles Ernest AckerEngineeringManufacturing Caustic Alkali and Halogen Gas
1902
Fred W. TaylorEngineeringProcess of Treating Tool Steel
1902
Maunsel WhiteEngineeringProcess of Treating Tool Steel
1903
G. H. ClamEngineeringMethod of eliminating metals from mixtures of metals
1903
Joseph L. FerrellEngineeringProcess of fireproofing wood
1903
Wilson Lindsley GillEngineering; Computer and Cognitive ScienceSchool City Educational Plan
1903
Victor GoldschmidtEngineeringTheory of Musical Harmony
1903
Frank J. SpragueEngineeringSystem of Electric Traction
1904
James Mapes DodgeEngineeringSystem of Storing Coal
1904
Wilson Lindsley GillEngineering; Computer and Cognitive ScienceSchool City
1904
Hans GoldschmidtPhysicsAlumino-Thermics
1904
Louis E. LevyEngineeringMachine for preparation of plates for etching
1904
L. D. LovekinEngineeringExpanding and Flanging Machinery for Tubes
1904
Alexander E. Outerbridge, Jr.EngineeringMolecular Structure of Cast Iron
1904
John Clinton ParkerEngineeringSteam Generator
1905
Gray National Telautograph CompanyEngineeringTelautograph
1905
Michael Idvorsky PupinPhysicsReducing Attenuation of Electrical Waves
1906
American Paper Bottle CompanyEngineeringPaper Milk Bottles
1906
William Joseph Hammer(unspecified)Historic Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps
1907
Baldwin Locomotive WorksEngineeringContributions to Evolution of American Locomotive
1907
John L. BorschPhysicsA new Bi-Focal Lens
1907
J. Allen HeanyEngineeringFireproof Insulated Wire
1907
Ferdinand PhilipsEngineeringPressed Steel Pulley for Power Transmission
1907
Edward R. TaylorChemistryElectric Furnace Manufacture of Carbon bisulfide
1908
Romeyn Beck HoughEngineeringUses of American Woods
1908
Anatole MalletEngineeringImproved Articulated Compound Locomotive
1909
Marie CurieChemistryThe discovery of radium
1909
Pierre CurieChemistryThe discovery of radium
1909
Wolfgang GaedeEngineeringMolecular Air Pump
1909
James GayleyEngineeringDry air blast in blast furnace operation
1909
Auguste and Louis LumièreEngineeringColor photography
1909
George Owen SquierEngineeringMultiplex Telephony
1909
Benjamin TalbotEngineeringOpen Hearth Steel Process
1909
Walter Victor TurnerEngineeringAir Brake Design and Application
1909
Underwood Typewriter Co.EngineeringUnderwood Typewriter
1909
Alexis VernaszEngineeringMilling files
1909
H. A. Wise WoodEngineeringThe Autoplate Machine
1910
Automatic Electric CompanyEngineeringAutomatic System of Telephony
1910
John A. BrashearPhysicsDistinguished work in astronomical instruments
1910
Peter Cooper HewittInventionMercury rectifier
1910
John FritzEngineeringDistinguished work in iron and steel industries
1910
Robert Abbott HadfieldEngineeringDistinguished work in metallurgical sciences
1910
Ernest RutherfordEngineeringDistinguished work in electrical theory
1910
Joseph John ThomsonPhysicsFor distinguished work in physical sciences
1910
Edward WestonEngineeringDistinguished work in electrical discovery
1910
Harvey W. WileyLife ScienceDistinguished work in agricultural chemistry
1912
Alexander Graham BellEngineeringElectrical Transmission of Articulate Speech
1912
William CrookesChemistryDiscoveries in Chemistry
1912
Alfred E NobleEngineeringDistinguished work in civil engineering
1912
Edward Williams MorleyChemistryDetermination of fundamental magnitudes in chemistry
1912
Albert A. MichelsonPhysicsInvestigations in physical optics
1912
Sir Henry Enfield RoscoeChemistryImportant Research in Chemistry
1912
Samuel Wesley StrattonEngineeringDistinguished work in metrology
1912
Elihu ThomsonEngineeringIndustrial applications of electricity
1912
Adolf von BaeyerChemistryExtended research in organic chemistry
1913
Emile BerlinerEngineeringContributions to telephony and science of sound reproduction
1913
Hermann Emil FischerLife ScienceOrganic and biological chemistry
1913
Sir William RamsayChemistryDiscoveries in chemistry
1913
Isham RandolphEngineeringDistinguished work in civil engineering
1913
John StruttPhysicsExtended researches in physical science
1913
Albert SauveurEngineeringMetallography of Iron and Steel
1913
Charles Proteus SteinmetzEngineeringAnalytical methods in electrical engineering
1914
Josef Maria von EderChemistryOriginal Researches in Photo-Chemistry
1914
Carl Paul Gottfried von LindeEngineeringLiquefaction of gases and refrigeration
1914
Edgar Fahs SmithChemistryLeading work in electro-chemistry
1914
Orville WrightEngineeringThe art and science of aviation
1915
Michael J. OwensEngineeringAutomatic Bottle Blowing Machine
1916
American Telephone & TelegraphEngineeringDevelopment of the Art of telephony
1916
Byron E. EldredEngineeringLow Expansion Wire for Incandescent Lamps
1916
Robert GansEngineeringPermutit water softening process
1917
Edwin Fitch NorthrupEngineeringInvestigation of Electric Furnaces and High Temperature
1918
Isaac Newton LewisEngineeringLewis Machine Gun
1920
William LeRoy EmmetEngineeringElectrical Propulsion of Ships
1923
Lee DeForestEngineeringAudion
1923
Raymond D. JohnsonEngineeringHydraulic Valve
1923
Albert KingsburyEngineeringThrust bearing
1925
Francis HodgkinsonEngineeringTurbo-Electric Appliances
1926
George Ellery HalePhysicsAstronomical Researches of sun, solar atmosphere and solar physics
1926
Charles S. HastingsEngineeringDesign of Optical Systems
1927
Dayton C. MillerPhysicsResearches in Sound
1927
Edward Leamington NicholsPhysicsInvestigations in the Physical Sciences
1928
Gustaf W. ElmenEngineeringPermalloy
1928
Henry FordEngineeringRevolutionizing automobile industry, and industrial leadership
1928
Vladimir KarapetoffComputer and Cognitive ScienceKinematic Computing Devices
1928
Charles L. LawranceEngineeringWright Whirlwind Air-Cooled Engine, Model J-5
1929
James Colquhoun IrvineLife ScienceCarbohydrate chemistry
1929
Chevalier JacksonLife ScienceInstruments for Removal of Foreign Bodies from Respiratory and food Passages
1929
Elmer Ambrose Sperry [5]EngineeringNavigational and Recording Instruments (Gyroscopic)
1930
Norman Rothwell GibsonPhysicsMeasurement of Liquid Flow in Closed Conduits
1930
Irving Edwin MoultropEngineeringHigh Pressure Steam Boilers in Electric Generating Stations
1931
Clinton Joseph DavissonPhysicsScattering and diffraction of electrons by crystals
1931
Lester Halbert GermerPhysicsScattering and Diffraction of Electrons by Crystals
1931
Kotaro HondaEngineeringContributions to magnetism and metallurgy
1931
Theodore LymanPhysicsWork in Spectroscopy
1932
Percy W. BridgmanPhysicsWork in high pressure
1932
Charles LeGeyt FortescueEngineeringSymmetrical Coordinates in Polyphase Networks
1932
John B. Whitehead(unspecified)Dielectric Behavior
1933
Walther BauersfeldPhysicsOptical Planetarium
1933
Juan de la CiervaEngineeringAutogiro-flying machine with freely rotating wings
1934
Stuart BallantineEngineeringVertical Antenna for Radio Transmission
1934
Union Switch & SignalEngineeringContinuous Cab Signal and Automatic Train Control Systems
1936
George O. CurmeChemistryDevelopment of synthetic aliphatic chemistry
1936
Robert J. Van de GraaffEngineeringHigh Voltage Electrostatic Generator
1937
Carl David AndersonChemistryDiscovery of the positron
1937
William BowieEarth ScienceContributions to the Science of Geodesy (Isostasy)
1937
Jacques Edwin BrandenbergerEngineeringProcess for Manufacture of Cellophane
1937
William F. GiauquePhysicsLow temperature research
1937
Ernest O. LawrenceEngineeringDevelopment of the Cyclotron
1938
Edwin H. LandEngineeringPolaroid camera
1939
Charles Vernon BoysPhysicsCreation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity
1939
George Ashley CampbellEngineeringTheory of electric circuits for improvements in telephony
1939
John R. CarsonEngineeringContributions to electric communications
1940
Frederick M. BacketEngineeringLow carbon ferro-alloys and electro-metallurgy
1940
Robert R. WilliamsLife ScienceResearches upon Vitamin B1 including its isolation in the pure state in quantities sufficient for further study
1941
United States NavyEngineeringSubmarine rescue devices, U.S. lung and rescue chamber
1942
Claude Silbert HudsonLife ScienceInvestigation in Carbohydrate chemistry
1942
Isidor I. RabiPhysicsMeasurement of magnetic moments of atomic nuclei, and their radio frequency spectra
1943
Charles Metcalf AllenEngineeringSalt velocity method for measuring the flow of water in conduits
1944
Roger AdamsChemistryContributions in organic chemistry
1945
Stanford Caldwell HooperEngineeringLeadership in field of radio for U.S. Navy
1945
Lewis Ferry MoodyEngineeringHydraulic turbines
1946
Gladeon M. BarnesEngineeringContributions to design and development of anti-aircraft guns, tanks, seacoast artillery and welded gun carriages
1948
Edwin H. ColpittsEngineeringPractical systems of long distance communications
1950
Basil Ferdinand Jamieson SchonlandPhysicsWork in the field of atmospheric electricity and the mechanism of lightning discharge
1952
Edward C. MolinaEngineeringContributions to improvement of telephonic communications by applying mathematical probability to the study of telephone traffic and by the invention of switching equipment
1952
H. Birchard TaylorEngineeringDevelopment of the single runner vertical reaction turbine
1953
William BlumPhysicsScientific basis for the electro-deposition of metals
1953
George Russell HarrisonPhysicsPrecision measurement in Zeeman effect
1953
William F. MeggersPhysicsContributions to field of spectroscopy and to the knowledge of the electronic structure of many elements
1955
F. Philip BowdenPhysicsFor extensive investigations involving frictions between solid surfaces
1957
Willard F. LibbyPhysicsTechnique of radio carbon dating
1957
Reginald James Seymour PigottEngineeringEngineering accomplishments, inventions and leadership
1957
Robert Alexander Watson-WattEngineeringPulsed radar, and development of radar systems
1958
Joseph C. PatrickChemistryDiscoveries in polysulfide polymers and new processes of combining chemical compounds for the manufacture of synthetic rubber
1958
Stephen P. TimoshenkoEngineeringTheory of elasticity and elastic stability
1959
John Hays HammondEngineeringDeveloped remote radio control of moving vehicles
1959
Henry Charles HarrisonEngineeringMatched impedance principle in electro-mechanical devices
1959
Irving WolffEngineeringContributions to radio, radar and electronics
1960
Hugh Latimer DrydenEngineeringContributions to theory and application of aerodynamics which advanced the art of wind tunnel and aircraft design and for contributions to design and development of first automatic radar homing guided missile
1960
Arpad Ludwig NadaiEngineeringPioneering work in elasticity of materials
1960
William Francis Gray SwannPhysicsSignificant studies in the field of cosmic radiation
1961
Donald A. GlaserPhysicsThe bubble chamber for tracking and photographing tracks of high energy ionizing particles and the fragments of nuclear collisions
1961
Rudolf L. MössbauerPhysicsDiscovery of recoilless emission
1961
Reinhold RudenbergEngineeringPerformance of electric power systems
1961
James Alfred Van AllenPhysicsPioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts
1962
James G. BakerPhysicsInnovations in the design of astronomical instruments and the mathematics of optical design
1962
Wernher von BraunEngineeringLiquid rocket motors and rocket development
1963
Nicholas ChristofilosPhysicsContributions to applied electromagnetism and nuclear physics such as conception of strange-focusing principle in synchrotrons, the ARGUS experiment and principles in Astron development
1963
Grote ReberPhysicsRadio astronomy, early radio telescopes, and the identification of the first radio star
1964
Waldo L. SemonEngineeringAchievements in natural and synthetic rubber production
1964
Richard V. SouthwellPhysicsSolution of buckling problems in physics and engineering
1964
Robert Rathbun WilsonPhysicsContributions to the control and direction of high-energy particle beams and as a designer of instrumentation for measurement of high-energy physical phenomena
1965
Donald Dexter Van SlykeLife ScienceClinical chemistry procedures and apparatus
1966
Everitt P. BlizardPhysicsDevelopment of the theory of radiation shielding
1966
Herman Francis MarkChemistryPolymers
1968
Neil BartlettChemistryFluorine Compounds of Xenon and Radon
1969
Henry EyringChemistryQuantum mechanical calculations of activation energies
1969
Peter Carl GoldmarkEngineeringContributions in the fields of electronics
1970
Walter Henry ZinnEngineeringNuclear power reactors
1971
Paul J. FloryChemistryPolymer science
1971
John Hasbrouck Van VleckPhysicsTheories of magnetism and dielectrics
1972
Brian D. JosephsonPhysicsJosephson effect and theory of matter at low temperatures
1972
William Powell LearEngineeringDevelopment of full maneuvering automatic pilot and Lear jet
1973
Allan R. SandagePhysicsAstronomy
1973
John Paul StappLife ScienceCrash Injury Research
1974
Theodore L. CairnsChemistryPercyano compounds, synthesis and exploration of chemical and physical properties
1974
Robert H. DickePhysicsRole in gravitational experiment and theory
1974
Arie Jan Haagen-SmitEarth SciencePlant hormones and air pollution chemistry
1974
Bruno B. RossiPhysicsCosmic rays, gamma-ray astronomy
1975
Mildred CohnLife ScienceNuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic complexes
1975
Michael James LighthillPhysicsAcoustic quadrupole theory of aerodynamic noise generation
1976
Leon LedermanPhysicsLeadership in forefront of experimentation in study of high energy interactions, nuclear forces and particle physics
1978
Herbert C. BrownChemistryDevelopment of methods for synthesis of diborane and alkali metal hydrides
1978
Frank H. StillingerChemistryComputer-generated model for water molecules
1979
Steven WeinbergPhysicsUnified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions
1980
Riccardo GiacconiPhysicsOutstanding work in X-ray astronomy
1981
Marion King HubbertEarth ScienceApplication of quantitative methods to geological problems
1982
Harold P. EubankPhysicsPlasma physics
1982
Edgar Bright Wilson, Jr.PhysicsContributions to the understanding of molecular structure and dynamics
1984
Elizabeth F. NeufeldLife ScienceFor investigation of genetics of mucopolysaccharide storage disease
1985
Robert N. ClaytonEngineeringFor the application of mass spectrometry to geoscience research
1985
Andrei SakharovPhysicsFor contributions to controlled thermonuclear reactions, baryon synthesis and proton decay, induced gravity and the quark model
1986
Leo P. KadanoffPhysicsFor contributions to the current understanding of second order phase transition
1987
Gerd BinnigPhysicsFor development of the scanning tunneling microscope
1987
Heinrich RohrerPhysicsFor the development of scanning tunneling microscope
1988
Harry G. DrickamerEngineeringFor clarification of the role of pressure in producing paramagnetic-ferromagnetic and conductor-insulator transitions
1989
Edward Norton LorenzPhysicsFor interpretation of dynamical chaos in physical systems
1990
Marlan O. ScullyPhysicsFor his discoveries in laser physics and quantum optics, atomic and statistical physics, and biological engineering
1991
Yakir AharonovPhysicsFor observations of electromagnetic potentials and insights into quantum mechanics
1991
David BohmPhysicsFor elevated electromagnetic potentials to status of physical observables
1992
Lap-Chee TsuiLife ScienceFor the discovery of the cystic fibrosis gene
1995
Marvin H. CaruthersLife ScienceFor his contributions in automating the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides
1995
Alfred Y. ChoPhysicsFor development and refinement of techniques of molecular beam epitaxy for use in quantum physics
1997
Irwin FridovichLife ScienceFor discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms
1997
Joe Milton McCordLife ScienceFor discovering the biology of free radical reactions in living organisms