Europium

  • europium, 63eu
    europium.jpg
    europium
    pronunciationm/ (oh-pee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white, with a pale yellow tint;[1] but rarely seen without oxide discoloration
    standard atomic weight ar, std(eu)151.964(1)[2]
    europium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    eu

    am
    samariumeuropiumgadolinium
    atomic number (z)63
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide
    electron configuration[xe] 4f7 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1099 k ​(826 °c, ​1519 °f)
    boiling point1802 k ​(1529 °c, ​2784 °f)
    density (near r.t.)5.264 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)5.13 g/cm3
    heat of fusion9.21 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization176 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity27.66 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 863 957 1072 1234 1452 1796
    atomic properties
    oxidation states+1, +2, +3 (a mildly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.2
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 547.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1085 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2404 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
    covalent radius198±6 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of europium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
    body-centered cubic crystal structure for europium
    thermal expansionpoly: 35.0 µm/(m·k) (at r.t.)
    thermal conductivityest. 13.9 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivitypoly: 0.900 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
    magnetic susceptibility+34,000.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
    young's modulus18.2 gpa
    shear modulus7.9 gpa
    bulk modulus8.3 gpa
    poisson ratio0.152
    vickers hardness165–200 mpa
    cas number7440-53-1
    history
    namingafter europe
    discovery and first isolationeugène-anatole demarçay (1896, 1901)
    main isotopes of europium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    150eu syn 36.9 y ε 150sm
    151eu 47.8% 5×1018 y α 147pm
    152eu syn 13.54 y ε 152sm
    β 152gd
    153eu 52.2% stable
    154eu syn 8.59 y β 154gd
    155eu syn 4.76 y β 155gd
    category category: europium
    | references

    europium is a chemical element with the symbol eu and atomic number 63. europium is the most reactive lanthanide by far, having to be stored under an inert fluid to protect it from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. europium is also the softest lanthanide, as it can be dented with a fingernail and easily cut with a knife. when oxidation is removed a shiny-white metal is visible. europium was isolated in 1901 and is named after the continent of europe.[5] being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is also common. all europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. europium is one of the rarest of the rare earth elements on earth.[6]

  • characteristics
  • production
  • compounds
  • history
  • applications
  • precautions
  • references
  • external links

Europium, 63Eu
Europium.jpg
Europium
Pronunciationm/ (OH-pee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white, with a pale yellow tint;[1] but rarely seen without oxide discoloration
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Eu)151.964(1)[2]
Europium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Eu

Am
samariumeuropiumgadolinium
Atomic number (Z)63
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1099 K ​(826 °C, ​1519 °F)
Boiling point1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
Density (near r.t.)5.264 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.13 g/cm3
Heat of fusion9.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization176 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.66 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 863 957 1072 1234 1452 1796
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.2
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 547.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1085 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2404 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius198±6 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of europium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for europium
Thermal expansionpoly: 35.0 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivityest. 13.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitypoly: 0.900 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Magnetic susceptibility+34,000.0·10−6 cm3/mol[4]
Young's modulus18.2 GPa
Shear modulus7.9 GPa
Bulk modulus8.3 GPa
Poisson ratio0.152
Vickers hardness165–200 MPa
CAS Number7440-53-1
History
Namingafter Europe
Discovery and first isolationEugène-Anatole Demarçay (1896, 1901)
Main isotopes of europium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
150Eu syn 36.9 y ε 150Sm
151Eu 47.8% 5×1018 y α 147Pm
152Eu syn 13.54 y ε 152Sm
β 152Gd
153Eu 52.2% stable
154Eu syn 8.59 y β 154Gd
155Eu syn 4.76 y β 155Gd
Category Category: Europium
| references

Europium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Europium is the most reactive lanthanide by far, having to be stored under an inert fluid to protect it from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. Europium is also the softest lanthanide, as it can be dented with a fingernail and easily cut with a knife. When oxidation is removed a shiny-white metal is visible. Europium was isolated in 1901 and is named after the continent of Europe.[5] Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is also common. All europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the rarest of the rare earth elements on Earth.[6]