Flerovium

  • flerovium, 114fl
    flerovium
    pronunciationm/[1] (roh-vee-əm)
    mass number[289] (unconfirmed: 290)
    flerovium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    pb

    fl

    (uho)
    nihoniumfleroviummoscovium
    atomic number (z)114
    groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
    periodperiod 7
    blockp-block
    element category  unknown chemical properties, but probably a post-transition metal; possibly a metalloid[2]
    electron configuration[rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (predicted)[3]
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4 (predicted)
    physical properties
    phase at stpgas (predicted)[3]
    boiling point~ 210 k ​(~ −60 °c, ​~ −80 °f) [4][5]
    density when liquid (at m.p.)14 g/cm3 (predicted)[6]
    heat of vaporization38 kj/mol (predicted)[6]
    atomic properties
    oxidation states(0), (+1), (+2), (+4), (+6) (predicted)[3][6][7]
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 832.2 kj/mol (predicted)[8]
    • 2nd: 1600 kj/mol (predicted)[6]
    • 3rd: 3370 kj/mol (predicted)[6]
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm (predicted)[3][6]
    covalent radius171–177 pm (extrapolated)[9]
    other properties
    natural occurrencesynthetic
    crystal structureface-centred cubic (fcc)
    face-centred cubic crystal structure for flerovium

    (predicted)[10]
    cas number54085-16-4
    history
    namingafter flerov laboratory of nuclear reactions (itself named after georgy flyorov)[11]
    discoveryjoint institute for nuclear research (jinr) and lawrence livermore national laboratory (llnl) (1999)
    main isotopes of flerovium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    284fl[12][13] syn 2.5 ms sf
    285fl[14] syn 0.10 s α 281cn
    286fl syn 0.12 s 40% α 282cn
    60% sf
    287fl[15] syn 0.48 s α 283cn
    ec? 287nh
    288fl syn 0.66 s α 284cn
    289fl syn 1.9 s α 285cn
    290fl[16][17] syn 19 s? ec 290nh
    α 286cn
    category category: flerovium
    | references

    flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with the symbol fl and atomic number 114. it is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. the element is named after the flerov laboratory of nuclear reactions of the joint institute for nuclear research in dubna, russia, where the element was discovered in 1998. the name of the laboratory, in turn, honours the russian physicist georgy flyorov (Флёров in cyrillic, hence the transliteration of "yo" to "e"). the name was adopted by iupac on 30 may 2012.

    in the periodic table of the elements, it is a transactinide element in the p-block. it is a member of the 7th period and is the heaviest known member of the carbon group; it is also the heaviest element whose chemistry has been investigated. initial chemical studies performed in 2007–2008 indicated that flerovium was unexpectedly volatile for a group 14 element;[18] in preliminary results it even seemed to exhibit properties similar to those of the noble gases.[19] more recent results show that flerovium's reaction with gold is similar to that of copernicium, showing that it is a very volatile element that may even be gaseous at standard temperature and pressure, that it would show metallic properties, consistent with it being the heavier homologue of lead, and that it would be the least reactive metal in group 14. the question of whether flerovium behaves more like a metal or a noble gas is still unresolved as of 2018.

    about 90 atoms of flerovium have been observed: 58 were synthesized directly, and the rest were made from the radioactive decay of heavier elements. all of these flerovium atoms have been shown to have mass numbers from 284 to 290. the most stable known flerovium isotope, flerovium-289, has a half-life of around 1.9 seconds, but it is possible that the unconfirmed flerovium-290 with one extra neutron may have a longer half-life of 19 seconds; this would be one of the longest half-lives of any isotope of any element at these farthest reaches of the periodic table. flerovium is predicted to be near the centre of the theorized island of stability, and it is expected that heavier flerovium isotopes, especially the possibly doubly magic flerovium-298, may have even longer half-lives.

  • history
  • predicted properties
  • experimental chemistry
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Flerovium, 114Fl
Flerovium
Pronunciationm/[1] (ROH-vee-əm)
Mass number[289] (unconfirmed: 290)
Flerovium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Pb

Fl

(Uho)
nihoniumfleroviummoscovium
Atomic number (Z)114
Groupgroup 14 (carbon group)
Periodperiod 7
Blockp-block
Element category  Unknown chemical properties, but probably a post-transition metal; possibly a metalloid[2]
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (predicted)[3]
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4 (predicted)
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas (predicted)[3]
Boiling point~ 210 K ​(~ −60 °C, ​~ −80 °F) [4][5]
Density when liquid (at m.p.)14 g/cm3 (predicted)[6]
Heat of vaporization38 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states(0), (+1), (+2), (+4), (+6) (predicted)[3][6][7]
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 832.2 kJ/mol (predicted)[8]
  • 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
  • 3rd: 3370 kJ/mol (predicted)[6]
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm (predicted)[3][6]
Covalent radius171–177 pm (extrapolated)[9]
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centred cubic crystal structure for flerovium

(predicted)[10]
CAS Number54085-16-4
History
Namingafter Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (itself named after Georgy Flyorov)[11]
DiscoveryJoint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (1999)
Main isotopes of flerovium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
284Fl[12][13] syn 2.5 ms SF
285Fl[14] syn 0.10 s α 281Cn
286Fl syn 0.12 s 40% α 282Cn
60% SF
287Fl[15] syn 0.48 s α 283Cn
EC? 287Nh
288Fl syn 0.66 s α 284Cn
289Fl syn 1.9 s α 285Cn
290Fl[16][17] syn 19 s? EC 290Nh
α 286Cn
Category Category: Flerovium
| references

Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with the symbol Fl and atomic number 114. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The element is named after the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, where the element was discovered in 1998. The name of the laboratory, in turn, honours the Russian physicist Georgy Flyorov (Флёров in Cyrillic, hence the transliteration of "yo" to "e"). The name was adopted by IUPAC on 30 May 2012.

In the periodic table of the elements, it is a transactinide element in the p-block. It is a member of the 7th period and is the heaviest known member of the carbon group; it is also the heaviest element whose chemistry has been investigated. Initial chemical studies performed in 2007–2008 indicated that flerovium was unexpectedly volatile for a group 14 element;[18] in preliminary results it even seemed to exhibit properties similar to those of the noble gases.[19] More recent results show that flerovium's reaction with gold is similar to that of copernicium, showing that it is a very volatile element that may even be gaseous at standard temperature and pressure, that it would show metallic properties, consistent with it being the heavier homologue of lead, and that it would be the least reactive metal in group 14. The question of whether flerovium behaves more like a metal or a noble gas is still unresolved as of 2018.

About 90 atoms of flerovium have been observed: 58 were synthesized directly, and the rest were made from the radioactive decay of heavier elements. All of these flerovium atoms have been shown to have mass numbers from 284 to 290. The most stable known flerovium isotope, flerovium-289, has a half-life of around 1.9 seconds, but it is possible that the unconfirmed flerovium-290 with one extra neutron may have a longer half-life of 19 seconds; this would be one of the longest half-lives of any isotope of any element at these farthest reaches of the periodic table. Flerovium is predicted to be near the centre of the theorized island of stability, and it is expected that heavier flerovium isotopes, especially the possibly doubly magic flerovium-298, may have even longer half-lives.