List of Russian monarchs

Monarchy of Russia
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Император Николай II.jpg
Last Monarch: Nicholas II
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Details
StyleHis/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarchRurik (as Prince)
Last monarchNicholas II (as Emperor)
Formation862
Abolition15 March 1917
ResidenceWinter Palace, Moscow Kremlin
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes the titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus'(Russia), and Emperor of All Russia. The list begins with a semi-legendary Rurik, Prince of Novgorod, sometime in the mid 9th century (c. 862) and ends with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. According to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, the Russian Tsar held several dozen titles, each one representing a region which the monarch governed.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–13.

Yarthewise.png Princes of Rus', 862–1547

Parts of the land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the 9th century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who entered the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate circa 830. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers).

Nowogród.svg Princes of Novgorod

Traditionally, Rus' statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Rurik I
  • Рюрик
c. 830 – 879862879Founder of Rurik DynastyRurikids
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912879882Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince IgorRurikids

Yarthewise.png Grand Princes of Kiev

Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev (now Ukraine), founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Askold and Dir
  • Haskuldr and Dýri
    Аскольд и Дир
9th century842[3][4][note 1] or 862882Rus' chieftains and members of Rurik's armyAskold: Kyi
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912882Autumn 912Successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik's sonRurikids
Igor I
Igor Rurikovich
  • Игорь Рюрикович
878 – 945913Autumn 945Son of RurikRurikids
Olga of Kiev
Olga the Wise (Saint Olga)
  • Ольга Мудрая (Ольга Святая)
890 – 969945962Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav I-
Sviatoslav I
Sviatoslav Igorevich
  • Святослав Игоревич
942 – 972Autumn 945March 972Son of Igor I and Olga of KievRurikids
Yaropolk I
Yaropolk Svyatoslavich
  • Ярополк Святославич
950 – 980March 97211 June 980Son of Sviatoslav I and PredslavaRurikids
Vladimir I
Vladimir Syatoslavich (Vladimir the Great)
  • Владимир Святославич (Владимир Великий)
958 – 101511 June 98015 July 1015Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha
Younger brother of Yaropolk I
Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 101915 July 1015Autumn 1016Son of Yaropolk I
During his reign, Kievan Rus' was conquered by Poland
Rurikids
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 1054Autumn 1016Summer 1018Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of PolotskRurikids
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 101914 August 101827 July 1019RestoredRurikids
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 105427 July 101920 February 1054RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 107820 February 105415 September 1068First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Vseslav Briachislavich
Vseslav the Sorcerer
  • Всеслав Брячиславич (Всеслав Чародей)
1039 – 110115 September 106829 April 1069Great-grandson of Vladimir I
Usurped the Kievan Throne
Rurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 10782 May 106922 March 1073RestoredRurikids
Sviatoslav II
Sviatoslav Yaroslavich
  • Святослав Ярославич
1027 – 107622 March 107327 December 1076Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 10931 January 107715 July 1077Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 107815 July 10773 October 1078RestoredRurikids
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 10933 October 107813 April 1093RestoredRurikids
Sviatopolk II
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
  • Святополк Изяславич
1050 – 111324 April 109316 April 1113Son of Iziaslav IRurikids
Vladimir II
Vladimir Vsevolodovich (Vladimir Monomakh)
  • Владимир Всеволодович (Мономах)
1053 – 112520 April 111319 May 1125Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of ByzantiumRurikids
Mstislav I
Mstislav Volodimirovich (Mstislav the Great)
  • Мстислав Володимирович (Мстислав Великий)
1076 – 113220 May 112515 April 1132Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexRurikids
Yaropolk II
Yaropolk Vladimirovich
  • Ярополк Владимирович
1082 – 113917 April 113218 February 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
22 February 11394 March 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk II
Rurikids
Vsevolod II
Vsevolod Olgovich
  • Всеволод Ольгович
1084 – 11465 March 113930 July 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Igor II
Igor Olgovich
  • Игорь Ольгович
1096

19 September 1146
1 August 114613 August 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 115413 August 114623 August 1149Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of SwedenRurikids
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 115728 August 1149Summer 1150Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 1157August 1150Winter 1151RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Winter 115113 November 1154RestoredRurikids
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
Spring 11516 February 1154RestoredRurikids
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 11671154January 1155Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Younger brother of Iziaslav II
Rurikids
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th centuryJanuary 11551155Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 115720 March 115515 May 1157RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th century19 May 1157December 1158RestoredRurikids
Mstislav II
Mstislav Iziaslavich
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117022 December 1158Spring 1159Son of Iziaslav IIRurikids
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 116712 April 11598 February 1161RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav III
Iziaslav Davidovich
  • Изяслав Давидович
12th century12 February 11616 March 1161RestoredRurikids
Rostislav I
Rostislav Mstislavich
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 1167March 116114 March 1167RestoredRurikids
Vladimir III
Vladimir Mstislavich
  • Владимир Мстиславич
1132 – 1173Spring 1167Spring 1167Son of Mstislav I
Younger brother of Iziaslav II and Rostislav I
Rurikids
Mstislav II
Mstislav Iziaslavich
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117019 May 116712 March 1169RestoredRurikids

Seal-of-Alexander-Nevsky 1236 Avers.svg Grand Princes of Vladimir

By the early 11th century the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Rus' lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Andrey I
Andrey Yuryevich (Andrey the Pious)
  • Андрей Юрьевич (Андрей Боголюбский)
1110 – 117415 May 115729 June 1174Son of Yuri IRurikids
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century1174September 1174Son of Yuri I
Younger brother of Andrey I
Rurikids
Yaropolk III
Yaropolk Rostislavich
  • Ярополк Ростиславич
12th century117415 June 1175Grandson of Yuri IRurikids
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century15 June 117520 June 1176RestoredRurikids
Vsevolod III
Vsevolod Yuryevich (Vsevolod the Big Nest)
  • Всееволод Юрьевич (Всеволод Большое Гнездо)
1154 – 1212June 117615 April 1212Son of Yuri I and Helene
Younger brother of Andrey I and Mikhail I
Rurikids
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238121227 April 1216Son of Vselovod III and Maria ShvarnovnaRurikids
Konstantin of Rostov
Konstantin Vsevolodovich
  • Константин Всеволодович
1186 – 1218Spring 12162 February 1218Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Elder brother of Yuri II
Rurikids
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238February 12184 March 1238RestoredRurikids
Yaroslav II
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
  • Ярослав Всеволодович
1191 – 1246123830 September 1246Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of Rostov
Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
12461248Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav II
Rurikids
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Mikhail Khorobrit
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Хоробрит)
1229

15 January 1248
124815 January 1248Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
12481249RestoredRurikids
Andrey II
Andrey Yaroslavich
  • Андрей Ярославич
1222 – 1264December 124924 July 1252Son of Yaroslav II
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Alexander Yaroslavich
Alexander Nevsky
  • Александр Ярославич (Александр Невский)
1221 – 1263125214 November 1263Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey II
Rurikids
Yaroslav III
Yaroslav Yaroslavich
  • Ярослав Ярославич
1230 – 127212641271Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia Igorevna
Younger brother of Alexander Nevsky, Andrey II and Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Vasily Yaroslavich
  • Василий Ярославич
1241 – 12761272January 1277Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 129412771281Son of Alexander NevskyRurikids
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 13041281December 1283Son of Alexander Nevsky
Younger brother of Dmitry of Pereslavl
Rurikids
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 1294December 12831293RestoredRurikids
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 130412931304RestoredRurikids
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Michael of Tver
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Тверской)
1271 – 1318Autumn 130422 November 1318Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of TarusaRurikids
Yuri III
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 – 132513182 November 1322Grandson of Alexander NevskyRurikids
Dmitry Mikhailovich
Dmitry the Fearsome Eyes
  • Дмитрий Михайлович (Дмитрий Грозные Очи)
1299 – 1326132215 September 1326Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of KashinRurikids
Alexander Mikhaylovich
  • Александр Михайлович
1281 – 133913261327Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of Kashin
Elder brother of Dmitry
Rurikids
Alexander Vasilyevich
  • Александр Васильевич
14th century13281331Grandson of Andrey IIRurikids
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 1340133231 March 1340Grandson of Alexander Nevsky
Son of Daniel of Moscow
Rurikids

Seal of Ivan 4 1539 a.svg Grand Princes of Moscow

After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Rus' territory in the 15th century, starting the story of Russia. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Daniel Aleksandrovich
  • Даниил Александрович
1261

4 March 1303
12834 March 1303Son of Alexander Nevsky and MariaRurikids
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281

21 November 1325
4 March 130321 November 1325Son of Daniel
Elder brother of Ivan I
Rurikids
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 134021 November 132531 March 1340He was a successor of Alexander of Suzdal as Grand Prince of Vladimir and a successor of Yury of Moscow as Grand Prince of MoscowRurikids
Simeon Ivanovich
Simeon the Proud
  • Семён Иванович (Семён Гордый)
7 November 1316

27 April 1353
31 March 134027 April 1353Son of Ivan I and HelenaRurikids
Ivan II
Ivan Ivanovich (Ivan the Red)
  • Иван Иванович (Иван Красный)
30 March 1326

13 November 1359
27 April 135313 November 1359Son of Ivan I and Helena
Younger brother of Simeon of Moscow
Rurikids
Dmitry Ivanovich
Dmitry of the Don
  • Дмитрий Иванович (Дмитрий Донской)
12 October 1350

19 May 1389
13 November 135919 May 1389Son of Ivan II and Alexandra Vasilyevna VelyaminovaRurikids
Vasily I
Vasily Dmitriyevich
  • Василий Дмитриевич
30 December 1371

27 February 1425
19 May 138927 February 1425Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia DmitriyevnaRurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 142530 March 1434Son of Vasily I and Sophia of LithuaniaRurikids
Yuri Dmitriyevich
  • Юрий Дмитриевич
26 November 1374

5 June 1434
31 March 14345 June 1434Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna
Younger brother of Vasily I
Rurikids
Vasily Yuryevich
Vasily the Squint
  • Василий Юрьевич (Василий Косой)
1421 – 14485 June 14341435Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
14351446RestoredRurikids
Dmitry Yuryevich
Dmitry Shemyaka
  • Дмитрий Юрьевич (Дмитрий Шемяка)
15th century144626 March 1447Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 144727 March 1462RestoredRurikids
Ivan III
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Great)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Великий)
22 January 1440

6 November 1505
5 April 14626 November 1505Son of Vasily II and Maria of BorovskRurikids
Vasily III
Vasily Ivanovich
  • Василий Иванович
25 March 1479

13 December 1533
6 November 150513 December 1533Son of Ivan III and Sophia PaleologueRurikids
Ivan IV
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Terrible)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)
25 August 1530

28 March 1584
13 December 153326 January 1547Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRurikids