Lithium

  • lithium, 3li
    lithium paraffin.jpg
    lithium floating in oil
    lithium
    pronunciationm/ (lith-ee-əm)
    appearancesilvery-white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(li)[6.9386.997] conventional: 6.94
    lithium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    h

    li

    na
    heliumlithiumberyllium
    atomic number (z)3
    groupgroup 1: h and alkali metals
    periodperiod 2
    blocks-block
    element category  alkali metal
    electron configuration[he] 2s1
    electrons per shell2, 1
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point453.65 k ​(180.50 °c, ​356.90 °f)
    boiling point1603 k ​(1330 °c, ​2426 °f)
    density (near r.t.)0.534 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)0.512 g/cm3
    critical point3220 k, 67 mpa (extrapolated)
    heat of fusion3.00 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization136 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity24.860 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
    atomic properties
    oxidation states+1 (a strongly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 0.98
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 520.2 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 7298.1 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 11815.0 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 152 pm
    covalent radius128±7 pm
    van der waals radius182 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of lithium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
    body-centered cubic crystal structure for lithium
    speed of sound thin rod6000 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion46 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity84.8 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity92.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+14.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 k)[1]
    young's modulus4.9 gpa
    shear modulus4.2 gpa
    bulk modulus11 gpa
    mohs hardness0.6
    brinell hardness5 mpa
    cas number7439-93-2
    history
    discoveryjohan august arfwedson (1817)
    first isolationwilliam thomas brande (1821)
    main isotopes of lithium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    6li 7.59% stable
    7li 92.41% stable
    6li content may be as low as 1.9% in
    commercial samples. 7li would therefore
    have a content of up to 98.1%.
    category category: lithium
    | references

    lithium (from greek: λίθος, romanizedlithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with the symbol li and atomic number 3. it is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in mineral oil. when cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. it never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

    the nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common.[2] for related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. the transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.[3]

    lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. these uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production.

    lithium is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder in humans.

  • properties
  • occurrence
  • history
  • production
  • applications
  • biological role
  • precautions
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links

Lithium, 3Li
Lithium paraffin.jpg
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium
Pronunciationm/ (LITH-ee-əm)
Appearancesilvery-white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Li)[6.9386.997] conventional: 6.94
Lithium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
H

Li

Na
heliumlithiumberyllium
Atomic number (Z)3
Groupgroup 1: H and alkali metals
Periodperiod 2
Blocks-block
Element category  Alkali metal
Electron configuration[He] 2s1
Electrons per shell2, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point453.65 K ​(180.50 °C, ​356.90 °F)
Boiling point1603 K ​(1330 °C, ​2426 °F)
Density (near r.t.)0.534 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)0.512 g/cm3
Critical point3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion3.00 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization136 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.860 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1 (a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 0.98
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 152 pm
Covalent radius128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius182 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of lithium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for lithium
Speed of sound thin rod6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion46 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity84.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity92.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+14.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[1]
Young's modulus4.9 GPa
Shear modulus4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus11 GPa
Mohs hardness0.6
Brinell hardness5 MPa
CAS Number7439-93-2
History
DiscoveryJohan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolationWilliam Thomas Brande (1821)
Main isotopes of lithium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
6Li 7.59% stable
7Li 92.41% stable
6Li content may be as low as 1.9% in
commercial samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 98.1%.
Category Category: Lithium
| references

Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, romanizedlithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

The nucleus of the lithium atom verges on instability, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nuclei are very light: it is an exception to the trend that heavier nuclei are less common.[2] For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.[3]

Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries. These uses consume more than three quarters of lithium production.

Lithium is present in biological systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. Lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder in humans.