Louis Pasteur

  • louis pasteur

    formemrs
    louis pasteur, foto av paul nadar, crisco edit.jpg
    photograph by nadar
    born(1822-12-27)december 27, 1822
    dole, france
    diedseptember 28, 1895(1895-09-28) (aged 72)
    marnes-la-coquette, france
    nationalityfrench
    alma mater
    • École normale supérieure
    • university of paris
    awards
    • legion of honor grand cross (1881)
    • rumford medal (1856)
    • foreign member of the royal society (1869)[1]
    • copley medal (1874)
    • albert medal (1882)
    • foreign associate of the national academy of sciences (1883)
    • leeuwenhoek medal (1895)
    • order of the medjidie[2]
    scientific career
    fields
    • biology
    • microbiology
    • chemistry
    institutions
    • university of strasbourg
    • university of lille
    • École normale supérieure
    • pasteur institute
    notable studentscharles friedel[3]
    signature
    louis pasteur signature.svg

    louis pasteur (ɜːr/, french: [lwi pastœʁ]; december 27, 1822 – september 28, 1895) was a french biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. he is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. he reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

    his medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. he is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. he is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with ferdinand cohn and robert koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology".[4][5][6]

    pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. he performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. under the auspices of the french academy of sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing ever developed, and in sterilized but open flasks microorganisms could grow.[7] although pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of europe that it was true.

    today, he is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory.[8] pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. his work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds.

    he was the director of the pasteur institute, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. although pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.[9][10]

  • education and early life
  • career
  • research
  • controversies
  • awards and honours
  • personal life
  • publications
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur, foto av Paul Nadar, Crisco edit.jpg
Photograph by Nadar
Born(1822-12-27)December 27, 1822
Dole, France
DiedSeptember 28, 1895(1895-09-28) (aged 72)
NationalityFrench
Alma mater
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
Notable studentsCharles Friedel[3]
Signature
Louis Pasteur Signature.svg

Louis Pasteur (ɜːr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology".[4][5][6]

Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. He performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing ever developed, and in sterilized but open flasks microorganisms could grow.[7] Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true.

Today, he is often regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory.[8] Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. His work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds.

He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.[9][10]