Lutetium

  • lutetium, 71lu
    lutetium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    lutetium
    pronunciationm/ (tee-shee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(lu)174.9668(1)[1]
    lutetium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    lu

    lr
    ytterbiumlutetiumhafnium
    atomic number (z)71
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide, sometimes considered a transition metal
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1925 k ​(1652 °c, ​3006 °f)
    boiling point3675 k ​(3402 °c, ​6156 °f)
    density (near r.t.)9.841 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)9.3 g/cm3
    heat of fusionca. 22 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization414 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity26.86 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1906 2103 2346 (2653) (3072) (3663)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.27
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 523.5 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1340 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2022.3 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 174 pm
    covalent radius187±8 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of lutetium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for lutetium
    thermal expansionpoly: 9.9 µm/(m·k) (at r.t.)
    thermal conductivity16.4 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivitypoly: 582 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
    young's modulus68.6 gpa
    shear modulus27.2 gpa
    bulk modulus47.6 gpa
    poisson ratio0.261
    vickers hardness755–1160 mpa
    brinell hardness890–1300 mpa
    cas number7439-94-3
    history
    namingafter lutetia, latin for: paris, in the roman era
    discoverycarl auer von welsbach and georges urbain (1906)
    first isolationcarl auer von welsbach (1906)
    named bygeorges urbain (1906)
    main isotopes of lutetium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    173lu syn 1.37 y ε 173yb
    174lu syn 3.31 y ε 174yb
    175lu 97.401% stable
    176lu 2.599% 3.78×1010 y β 176hf
    category category: lutetium
    | references

    lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol lu and atomic number 71. it is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. lutetium is sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, although lanthanum is more often[4] considered as such.

    lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by french scientist georges urbain, austrian mineralogist baron carl auer von welsbach, and american chemist charles james.[5] all of these researchers found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. the dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with urbain and welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to urbain, as he had published his results earlier. he chose the name lutecium for the new element, but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. in 1909, the priority was finally granted to urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium (or later cassiopium) for element 71 proposed by welsbach was used by many german scientists until the 1950s.

    lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, although it is significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust. it has few specific uses. lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium[6] and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177lu-dota-tate is used for radionuclide therapy (see nuclear medicine) on neuroendocrine tumours. lutetium has the highest brinell hardness of any lanthanide, at 890–1300 mpa.[7]

  • characteristics
  • history
  • occurrence and production
  • applications
  • precautions
  • see also
  • references

Lutetium, 71Lu
Lutetium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Lutetium
Pronunciationm/ (TEE-shee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Lu)174.9668(1)[1]
Lutetium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Lu

Lr
ytterbiumlutetiumhafnium
Atomic number (Z)71
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide, sometimes considered a transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1925 K ​(1652 °C, ​3006 °F)
Boiling point3675 K ​(3402 °C, ​6156 °F)
Density (near r.t.)9.841 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)9.3 g/cm3
Heat of fusionca. 22 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization414 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1906 2103 2346 (2653) (3072) (3663)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.27
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 523.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1340 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2022.3 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 174 pm
Covalent radius187±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of lutetium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for lutetium
Thermal expansionpoly: 9.9 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity16.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitypoly: 582 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus68.6 GPa
Shear modulus27.2 GPa
Bulk modulus47.6 GPa
Poisson ratio0.261
Vickers hardness755–1160 MPa
Brinell hardness890–1300 MPa
CAS Number7439-94-3
History
Namingafter Lutetia, Latin for: Paris, in the Roman era
DiscoveryCarl Auer von Welsbach and Georges Urbain (1906)
First isolationCarl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Named byGeorges Urbain (1906)
Main isotopes of lutetium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
173Lu syn 1.37 y ε 173Yb
174Lu syn 3.31 y ε 174Yb
175Lu 97.401% stable
176Lu 2.599% 3.78×1010 y β 176Hf
Category Category: Lutetium
| references

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium is sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, although lanthanum is more often[4] considered as such.

Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James.[5] All of these researchers found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain, as he had published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element, but in 1949 the spelling of element 71 was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium (or later cassiopium) for element 71 proposed by Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s.

Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, although it is significantly more common than silver in the earth's crust. It has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium[6] and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy (see Nuclear medicine) on neuroendocrine tumours. Lutetium has the highest Brinell hardness of any lanthanide, at 890–1300 MPa.[7]