Marie Curie

  • marie curie
    marie curie c1920.jpg
    c. 1920
    born
    maria salomea skłodowska

    (1867-11-07)7 november 1867
    warsaw, congress poland, russian empire[1]
    died4 july 1934(1934-07-04) (aged 66)
    passy, haute-savoie, france
    cause of deathaplastic anemia from exposure to radiation
    citizenship
    • poland (by birth)
    • france (by marriage)
    alma mater
    • university of paris
    • espci[2]
    known for
    • radioactivity
    • polonium
    • radium
    spouse(s)
    pierre curie
    (m. 1895; died 1906)
    children
    • irène joliot-curie (1897–1956)
    • Ève curie (1904–2007)
    awards
    • nobel prize in physics (1903)
    • davy medal (1903)
    • matteucci medal (1904)
    • elliott cresson medal (1909)
    • albert medal (1910)
    • nobel prize in chemistry (1911)
    • willard gibbs award (1921)
    • cameron prize for therapeutics of the university of edinburgh (1931)
    scientific career
    fieldsphysics, chemistry
    institutions
    • university of paris
      • institut du radium
    • École normale supérieure
    • french academy of medicine
    • international committee on intellectual cooperation
    thesisrecherches sur les substances radioactives (research on radioactive substances)
    doctoral advisorgabriel lippmann
    doctoral students
    • andré-louis debierne
    • Óscar moreno
    • marguerite perey
    • Émile henriot
    signature
    marie curie skłodowska signature polish.svg
    notes
    she is the only person to win a nobel prize in two different sciences.

    marie skłodowska curie (i/ kewr-ee,[3] french: [kyʁi], polish: [kʲiˈri]), born maria salomea skłodowska (polish: [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]; 7 november 1867 – 4 july 1934), was a polish and naturalized-french physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. she was the first woman to win a nobel prize, the first person and the only woman to win the nobel prize twice, and the only person to win the nobel prize in two different scientific fields. she was part of the curie family legacy of five nobel prizes. she was also the first woman to become a professor at the university of paris,[4] and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the panthéon in paris.[5]

    she was born in warsaw, in what was then the kingdom of poland, part of the russian empire. she studied at warsaw's clandestine flying university and began her practical scientific training in warsaw. in 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister bronisława to study in paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. she shared the 1903 nobel prize in physics with her husband pierre curie and physicist henri becquerel. she won the 1911 nobel prize in chemistry.

    her achievements include the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term she coined),[6][7] techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms using radioactive isotopes. she founded the curie institutes in paris and in warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. during world war i she developed mobile radiography units to provide x-ray services to field hospitals.

    while a french citizen, marie skłodowska curie, who used both surnames,[8][9] never lost her sense of polish identity. she taught her daughters the polish language and took them on visits to poland.[10] she named the first chemical element she discovered polonium, after her native country.[a]

    marie curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in sancellemoz (haute-savoie), france, of aplastic anaemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during world war i.[12]

  • life
  • legacy
  • honours, tributes
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Marie Curie
Marie Curie c1920.jpg
c. 1920
Born
Maria Salomea Skłodowska

(1867-11-07)7 November 1867
Died4 July 1934(1934-07-04) (aged 66)
Cause of deathAplastic anemia from exposure to radiation
Citizenship
  • Poland (by birth)
  • France (by marriage)
Alma mater
Known for
Spouse(s)
Pierre Curie
(m. 1895; died 1906)
Children
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics, chemistry
Institutions
ThesisRecherches sur les substances radioactives (Research on Radioactive Substances)
Doctoral advisorGabriel Lippmann
Doctoral students
Signature
Marie Curie Skłodowska Signature Polish.svg
Notes
She is the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.

Marie Skłodowska Curie (i/ KEWR-ee,[3] French: [kyʁi], Polish: [kʲiˈri]), born Maria Salomea Skłodowska (Polish: [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934), was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and the only woman to win the Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two different scientific fields. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris,[4] and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.[5]

She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Her achievements include the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term she coined),[6][7] techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals.

While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames,[8][9] never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland.[10] She named the first chemical element she discovered polonium, after her native country.[a]

Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anaemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I.[12]