Mercury (element)

  • mercury, 80hg
    pouring liquid mercury bionerd.jpg
    mercury
    appearancesilvery
    standard atomic weight ar, std(hg)200.592(3)[1]
    mercury in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    cd

    hg

    cn
    goldmercurythallium
    atomic number (z)80
    groupgroup 12
    periodperiod 6
    blockd-block
    element category  post-transition metal, alternatively considered a transition metal
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpliquid
    melting point234.3210 k ​(−38.8290 °c, ​−37.8922 °f)
    boiling point629.88 k ​(356.73 °c, ​674.11 °f)
    density (near r.t.)13.534 g/cm3
    triple point234.3156 k, ​1.65×10−7 kpa
    critical point1750 k, 172.00 mpa
    heat of fusion2.29 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization59.11 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity27.983 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 315 350 393 449 523 629
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2 , +1 (mercurous), +2 (mercuric) (a mildly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.00
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 1007.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1810 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 3300 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 151 pm
    covalent radius132±5 pm
    van der waals radius155 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of mercury
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurerhombohedral
    rhombohedral crystal structure for mercury
    speed of soundliquid: 1451.4 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion60.4 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity8.30 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity961 nΩ·m (at 25 °c)
    magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[2]
    magnetic susceptibility−33.44·10−6 cm3/mol (293 k)[3]
    cas number7439-97-6
    history
    discoveryancient egyptians (before 1500 bce)
    main isotopes of mercury
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    194hg syn 444 y ε 194au
    195hg syn 9.9 h ε 195au
    196hg 0.15% stable
    197hg syn 64.14 h ε 197au
    198hg 10.04% stable
    199hg 16.94% stable
    200hg 23.14% stable
    201hg 13.17% stable
    202hg 29.74% stable
    203hg syn 46.612 d β 203tl
    204hg 6.82% stable
    category category: mercury (element)
    | references

    mercury is a chemical element with the symbol hg and atomic number 80. it is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (m/ drar-jər-əm).[4] a heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is the halogen bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

    mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide). the red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide.

    mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers.

    mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales. it is also used in fluorescent lighting. electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light, which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light.

    mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury (such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury), by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury.

  • properties
  • etymology
  • history
  • occurrence
  • chemistry
  • applications
  • toxicity and safety
  • regulations
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Mercury, 80Hg
Pouring liquid mercury bionerd.jpg
Mercury
Appearancesilvery
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Hg)200.592(3)[1]
Mercury in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Cd

Hg

Cn
goldmercurythallium
Atomic number (Z)80
Groupgroup 12
Periodperiod 6
Blockd-block
Element category  Post-transition metal, alternatively considered a transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPliquid
Melting point234.3210 K ​(−38.8290 °C, ​−37.8922 °F)
Boiling point629.88 K ​(356.73 °C, ​674.11 °F)
Density (near r.t.)13.534 g/cm3
Triple point234.3156 K, ​1.65×10−7 kPa
Critical point1750 K, 172.00 MPa
Heat of fusion2.29 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization59.11 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.983 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 315 350 393 449 523 629
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2 , +1 (mercurous), +2 (mercuric) (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.00
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1007.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1810 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3300 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 151 pm
Covalent radius132±5 pm
Van der Waals radius155 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of mercury
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for mercury
Speed of soundliquid: 1451.4 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion60.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity8.30 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity961 nΩ·m (at 25 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[2]
Magnetic susceptibility−33.44·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[3]
CAS Number7439-97-6
History
DiscoveryAncient Egyptians (before 1500 BCE)
Main isotopes of mercury
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
194Hg syn 444 y ε 194Au
195Hg syn 9.9 h ε 195Au
196Hg 0.15% stable
197Hg syn 64.14 h ε 197Au
198Hg 10.04% stable
199Hg 16.94% stable
200Hg 23.14% stable
201Hg 13.17% stable
202Hg 29.74% stable
203Hg syn 46.612 d β 203Tl
204Hg 6.82% stable
Category Category: Mercury (element)
| references

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (m/ DRAR-jər-əm).[4] A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is the halogen bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide). The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide.

Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favor of alternatives such as alcohol- or galinstan-filled glass thermometers and thermistor- or infrared-based electronic instruments. Likewise, mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers.

Mercury remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam for dental restoration in some locales. It is also used in fluorescent lighting. Electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light, which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light.

Mercury poisoning can result from exposure to water-soluble forms of mercury (such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury), by inhalation of mercury vapor, or by ingesting any form of mercury.