Neodymium

  • neodymium, 60nd
    neodymium2.jpg
    neodymium
    pronunciationm/ (dim-ee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(nd)144.242(3)[1]
    neodymium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    nd

    u
    praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
    atomic number (z)60
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide
    electron configuration[xe] 4f4 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1297 k ​(1024 °c, ​1875 °f)
    boiling point3347 k ​(3074 °c, ​5565 °f)
    density (near r.t.)7.01 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)6.89 g/cm3
    heat of fusion7.14 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization289 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity27.45 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +2, +3, +4 (a mildly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.14
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 533.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1040 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2130 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 181 pm
    covalent radius201±6 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of neodymium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
    double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for neodymium
    speed of sound thin rod2330 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansionα, poly: 9.6 µm/(m·k) (at r.t.)
    thermal conductivity16.5 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityα, poly: 643 nΩ·m
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic, antiferromagnetic below 20 k[3]
    magnetic susceptibility+5628.0·10−6 cm3/mol (287.7 k)[4]
    young's modulusα form: 41.4 gpa
    shear modulusα form: 16.3 gpa
    bulk modulusα form: 31.8 gpa
    poisson ratioα form: 0.281
    vickers hardness345–745 mpa
    brinell hardness265–700 mpa
    cas number7440-00-8
    history
    discoverycarl auer von welsbach (1885)
    main isotopes of neodymium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    142nd 27.2% stable
    143nd 12.2% stable
    144nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 140ce
    145nd 8.3% stable
    146nd 17.2% stable
    148nd 5.8% 2.7×1018 y ββ 148sm
    150nd 5.6% 21×1018 y ββ 150sm
    | references

    neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol nd and atomic number 60. neodymium belongs to the lanthanide series and is a rare-earth element. it is a hard, slightly malleable silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. when oxidized, neodymium reacts quickly to produce pink, purple/blue and yellow compounds in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states.[5] neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the austrian chemist carl auer von welsbach. it is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. although neodymium is classed as a rare-earth element, it is fairly common, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, or copper, and is widely distributed in the earth's crust.[6] most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in china.

    neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses. the color of neodymium compounds is due to the nd3+ ion and is often a reddish-purple, but it changes with the type of lighting, because of the interaction of the sharp light absorption bands of neodymium with ambient light enriched with the sharp visible emission bands of mercury, trivalent europium or terbium. some neodymium-doped glasses are used in lasers that emit infrared with wavelengths between 1047 and 1062 nanometers. these have been used in extremely-high-power applications, such as experiments in inertial confinement fusion. neodymium is also used with various other substrate crystals, such as yttrium aluminium garnet in the nd:yag laser.

    another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to make high-strength neodymium magnets—powerful permanent magnets.[7] these magnets are widely used in such products as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, high performance hobby dc electric motors, and computer hard disks, where low magnet mass (or volume) or strong magnetic fields are required. larger neodymium magnets are used in high-power-versus-weight electric motors (for example in hybrid cars) and generators (for example aircraft and wind turbine electric generators).[8]

  • characteristics
  • history
  • occurrence and production
  • applications
  • precautions
  • references
  • external links

Neodymium, 60Nd
Neodymium2.jpg
Neodymium
Pronunciationm/ (DIM-ee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Nd)144.242(3)[1]
Neodymium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Nd

U
praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
Atomic number (Z)60
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1297 K ​(1024 °C, ​1875 °F)
Boiling point3347 K ​(3074 °C, ​5565 °F)
Density (near r.t.)7.01 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.89 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization289 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.45 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +2, +3, +4 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.14
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 533.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1040 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2130 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 181 pm
Covalent radius201±6 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of neodymium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for neodymium
Speed of sound thin rod2330 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 9.6 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity16.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 643 nΩ·m
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic, antiferromagnetic below 20 K[3]
Magnetic susceptibility+5628.0·10−6 cm3/mol (287.7 K)[4]
Young's modulusα form: 41.4 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 16.3 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.281
Vickers hardness345–745 MPa
Brinell hardness265–700 MPa
CAS Number7440-00-8
History
DiscoveryCarl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Main isotopes of neodymium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
142Nd 27.2% stable
143Nd 12.2% stable
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% stable
146Nd 17.2% stable
148Nd 5.8% 2.7×1018 y ββ 148Sm
150Nd 5.6% 21×1018 y ββ 150Sm
| references

Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium belongs to the lanthanide series and is a rare-earth element. It is a hard, slightly malleable silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, neodymium reacts quickly to produce pink, purple/blue and yellow compounds in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states.[5] Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a rare-earth element, it is fairly common, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, or copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust.[6] Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China.

Neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses. The color of neodymium compounds is due to the Nd3+ ion and is often a reddish-purple, but it changes with the type of lighting, because of the interaction of the sharp light absorption bands of neodymium with ambient light enriched with the sharp visible emission bands of mercury, trivalent europium or terbium. Some neodymium-doped glasses are used in lasers that emit infrared with wavelengths between 1047 and 1062 nanometers. These have been used in extremely-high-power applications, such as experiments in inertial confinement fusion. Neodymium is also used with various other substrate crystals, such as yttrium aluminium garnet in the Nd:YAG laser.

Another important use of neodymium is as a component in the alloys used to make high-strength neodymium magnets—powerful permanent magnets.[7] These magnets are widely used in such products as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, high performance hobby DC electric motors, and computer hard disks, where low magnet mass (or volume) or strong magnetic fields are required. Larger neodymium magnets are used in high-power-versus-weight electric motors (for example in hybrid cars) and generators (for example aircraft and wind turbine electric generators).[8]