Nickel

  • nickel, 28ni
    a pitted and lumpy piece of nickel, with the top surface cut flat
    nickel
    appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
    standard atomic weight ar, std(ni)58.6934(4)[1]
    nickel in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    ni

    pd
    cobaltnickelcopper
    atomic number (z)28
    groupgroup 10
    periodperiod 4
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[ar] 3d8 4s2 or [ar] 3d9 4s1
    electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1728 k ​(1455 °c, ​2651 °f)
    boiling point3003 k ​(2730 °c, ​4946 °f)
    density (near r.t.)8.908 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)7.81 g/cm3
    heat of fusion17.48 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization379 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity26.07 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4[3] (a mildly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.91
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 737.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1753.0 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 3395 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 124 pm
    covalent radius124±4 pm
    van der waals radius163 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of nickel
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
    speed of sound thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
    thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity90.9 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity69.3 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingferromagnetic
    young's modulus200 gpa
    shear modulus76 gpa
    bulk modulus180 gpa
    poisson ratio0.31
    mohs hardness4.0
    vickers hardness638 mpa
    brinell hardness667–1600 mpa
    cas number7440-02-0
    history
    discovery and first isolationaxel fredrik cronstedt (1751)
    main isotopes of nickel
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    58ni 68.077% stable
    59ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59co
    60ni 26.223% stable
    61ni 1.140% stable
    62ni 3.635% stable
    63ni syn 100 y β 63cu
    64ni 0.926% stable
    category category: nickel
    | references

    nickel is a chemical element with the symbol ni and atomic number 28. it is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation). even so, pure native nickel is found in earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks,[4][5] and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside earth's atmosphere.

    meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. an iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose earth's outer and inner cores.[6]

    use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 bce. nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by axel fredrik cronstedt, who initially mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of los, hälsingland, sweden. the element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of german miner mythology, nickel (similar to old nick), who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. an economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1–2% nickel. nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. major production sites include the sudbury region in canada (which is thought to be of meteoric origin), new caledonia in the pacific, and norilsk in russia.

    nickel is slowly oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant. historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as german silver. about 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years.

    nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium)[7] that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature. alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. the metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys; about 68% of world production is used in stainless steel. a further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector.[8] as a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments and metal surface treatments.[9] nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site.

  • properties
  • compounds
  • history
  • coinage
  • world production
  • extraction and purification
  • applications
  • biological role
  • toxicity
  • references
  • external links

Nickel, 28Ni
A pitted and lumpy piece of nickel, with the top surface cut flat
Nickel
Appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ni)58.6934(4)[1]
Nickel in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
Atomic number (Z)28
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2 or [Ar] 3d9 4s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Boiling point3003 K ​(2730 °C, ​4946 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.908 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization379 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4[3] (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.91
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 737.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1753.0 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3395 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of nickel
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
Speed of sound thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity69.3 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness4.0
Vickers hardness638 MPa
Brinell hardness667–1600 MPa
CAS Number7440-02-0
History
Discovery and first isolationAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Main isotopes of nickel
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
58Ni 68.077% stable
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59Co
60Ni 26.223% stable
61Ni 1.140% stable
62Ni 3.635% stable
63Ni syn 100 y β 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% stable
Category Category: Nickel
| references

Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area, shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks,[4][5] and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere.

Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's outer and inner cores.[6]

Use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden. The element's name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel (similar to Old Nick), who personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1–2% nickel. Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada (which is thought to be of meteoric origin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia.

Nickel is slowly oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant. Historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 9% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant nickel plating. Nickel-plated objects sometimes provoke nickel allergy. Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years.

Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium)[7] that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature. Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is valuable in modern times chiefly in alloys; about 68% of world production is used in stainless steel. A further 10% is used for nickel-based and copper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foundries, 9% in plating and 4% in other applications, including the fast-growing battery sector.[8] As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments and metal surface treatments.[9] Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms and plants that have enzymes with nickel as an active site.