Nobelium

  • nobelium, 102no
    nobelium
    pronunciation
    • m/ (about this soundlisten)
      (bel-ee-əm)
    • m/
      (bee-lee-əm)
    mass number[259]
    nobelium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    yb

    no

    (uph)
    mendeleviumnobeliumlawrencium
    atomic number (z)102
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 7
    blockf-block
    element category  actinide
    electron configuration[rn] 5f14 7s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid (predicted)[1]
    melting point1100 k ​(827 °c, ​1521 °f) (predicted)[1]
    density (near r.t.)9.9(4) g/cm3 (predicted)[2]
    atomic properties
    oxidation states+2, +3
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.3 (predicted)[3]
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 639[4] kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1254.3 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2605.1 kj/mol
    • (all but first estimated)
    other properties
    natural occurrencesynthetic
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for nobelium

    (predicted)[2]
    cas number10028-14-5
    history
    namingafter alfred nobel
    discoveryjoint institute for nuclear research (1966)
    main isotopes of nobelium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    253no syn 1.6 min 80% α 249fm
    20% β+ 253md
    254no syn 51 s 90% α 250fm
    10% β+ 254md
    255no syn 3.1 min 61% α 251fm
    39% β+ 255md
    257no syn 25 s 99% α 253fm
    1% β+ 257md
    259no syn 58 min 75% α 255fm
    25% ε 259md
    <10% sf
    category category: nobelium
    | references

    nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol no and atomic number 102. it is named in honor of alfred nobel, the inventor of dynamite and benefactor of science. a radioactive metal, it is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. a total of twelve nobelium isotopes are known to exist; the most stable is 259no with a half-life of 58 minutes, but the shorter-lived 255no (half-life 3.1 minutes) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.

    chemistry experiments have confirmed that nobelium behaves as a heavier homolog to ytterbium in the periodic table. the chemical properties of nobelium are not completely known: they are mostly only known in aqueous solution. before nobelium's discovery, it was predicted that it would show a stable +2 oxidation state as well as the +3 state characteristic of the other actinides: these predictions were later confirmed, as the +2 state is much more stable than the +3 state in aqueous solution and it is difficult to keep nobelium in the +3 state.

    in the 1950s and 1960s, many claims of the discovery of nobelium were made from laboratories in sweden, the soviet union, and the united states. although the swedish scientists soon retracted their claims, the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between soviet and american scientists, and it was not until 1997 that international union of pure and applied chemistry (iupac) credited the soviet team with the discovery, but retained nobelium, the swedish proposal, as the name of the element due to its long-standing use in the literature.

  • discovery
  • characteristics
  • preparation and purification
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Nobelium, 102No
Nobelium
Pronunciation
Mass number[259]
Nobelium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Yb

No

(Uph)
mendeleviumnobeliumlawrencium
Atomic number (Z)102
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 7
Blockf-block
Element category  Actinide
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f14 7s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid (predicted)[1]
Melting point1100 K ​(827 °C, ​1521 °F) (predicted)[1]
Density (near r.t.)9.9(4) g/cm3 (predicted)[2]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+2, +3
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3 (predicted)[3]
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 639[4] kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1254.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2605.1 kJ/mol
  • (all but first estimated)
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nobelium

(predicted)[2]
CAS Number10028-14-5
History
Namingafter Alfred Nobel
DiscoveryJoint Institute for Nuclear Research (1966)
Main isotopes of nobelium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
253No syn 1.6 min 80% α 249Fm
20% β+ 253Md
254No syn 51 s 90% α 250Fm
10% β+ 254Md
255No syn 3.1 min 61% α 251Fm
39% β+ 255Md
257No syn 25 s 99% α 253Fm
1% β+ 257Md
259No syn 58 min 75% α 255Fm
25% ε 259Md
<10% SF
Category Category: Nobelium
| references

Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol No and atomic number 102. It is named in honor of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite and benefactor of science. A radioactive metal, it is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. A total of twelve nobelium isotopes are known to exist; the most stable is 259No with a half-life of 58 minutes, but the shorter-lived 255No (half-life 3.1 minutes) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.

Chemistry experiments have confirmed that nobelium behaves as a heavier homolog to ytterbium in the periodic table. The chemical properties of nobelium are not completely known: they are mostly only known in aqueous solution. Before nobelium's discovery, it was predicted that it would show a stable +2 oxidation state as well as the +3 state characteristic of the other actinides: these predictions were later confirmed, as the +2 state is much more stable than the +3 state in aqueous solution and it is difficult to keep nobelium in the +3 state.

In the 1950s and 1960s, many claims of the discovery of nobelium were made from laboratories in Sweden, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Although the Swedish scientists soon retracted their claims, the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) credited the Soviet team with the discovery, but retained nobelium, the Swedish proposal, as the name of the element due to its long-standing use in the literature.