the line segments ab and cd are orthogonal to each other.
in mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms. two elements u and v of a vector space with bilinear form b are orthogonal when b(u, v) = 0. depending on the bilinear form, the vector space may contain nonzero self-orthogonal vectors. in the case of function spaces, families of orthogonal functions are used to form a basis.
by extension, orthogonality is also used to refer to the separation of specific features of a system. the term also has specialized meanings in other fields including art and chemistry.