in the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.:86:3 examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. a simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. in a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. the glass of the jar is another separate phase. (see state of matter § glass)
the term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but there can be several immiscible phases of the same state of matter. also, the term phase is sometimes used to refer to a set of equilibrium states demarcated in terms of state variables such as pressure and temperature by a phase boundary on a phase diagram. because phase boundaries relate to changes in the organization of matter, such as a change from liquid to solid or a more subtle change from one crystal structure to another, this latter usage is similar to the use of "phase" as a synonym for state of matter. however, the state of matter and phase diagram usages are not commensurate with the formal definition given above and the intended meaning must be determined in part from the context in which the term is used.
a small piece of rapidly melting argon
ice shows the transition from solid to liquid.