Platinum

  • platinum, 78pt
    platinum crystals.jpg
    platinum
    pronunciationm/ (plat-ə-nəm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(pt)195.084(9)[1]
    platinum in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    pd

    pt

    ds
    iridiumplatinumgold
    atomic number (z)78
    groupgroup 10
    periodperiod 6
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point2041.4 k ​(1768.3 °c, ​3214.9 °f)
    boiling point4098 k ​(3825 °c, ​6917 °f)
    density (near r.t.)21.45 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)19.77 g/cm3
    heat of fusion22.17 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization510 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.86 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a mildly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.28
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 870 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1791 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
    covalent radius136±5 pm
    van der waals radius175 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of platinum
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for platinum
    speed of sound thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
    thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity71.6 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity105 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+201.9·10−6 cm3/mol (290 k)[2]
    tensile strength125–240 mpa
    young's modulus168 gpa
    shear modulus61 gpa
    bulk modulus230 gpa
    poisson ratio0.38
    mohs hardness3.5
    vickers hardness400–550 mpa
    brinell hardness300–500 mpa
    cas number7440-06-4
    history
    discoveryantonio de ulloa (1735)
    main isotopes of platinum
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    190pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186os
    192pt 0.782% stable
    193pt syn 50 y ε 193ir
    194pt 32.864% stable
    195pt 33.775% stable
    196pt 25.211% stable
    198pt 7.356% stable
    category category: platinum
    | references

    platinum is a chemical element with the symbol pt and atomic number 78. it is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. its name is derived from the spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".[3][4]

    platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. it has six naturally occurring isotopes. it is one of the rarer elements in earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. it occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in south africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. because of its scarcity in earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.[5]

    platinum is one of the least reactive metals. it has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-columbian south american natives to produce artifacts. it was referenced in european writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until antonio de ulloa published a report on a new metal of colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists.

    platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.[6] compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.[7]

    as of 2020, the value of platinum is around $32.00 per gram ($1,000 per troy ounce).[8]

  • characteristics
  • compounds
  • history
  • production
  • applications
  • health problems
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Platinum, 78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
Platinum
Pronunciationm/ (PLAT-ə-nəm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Pt)195.084(9)[1]
Platinum in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgold
Atomic number (Z)78
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 6
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
Boiling point4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density (near r.t.)21.45 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 870 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of platinum
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for platinum
Speed of sound thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity105 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+201.9·10−6 cm3/mol (290 K)[2]
Tensile strength125–240 MPa
Young's modulus168 GPa
Shear modulus61 GPa
Bulk modulus230 GPa
Poisson ratio0.38
Mohs hardness3.5
Vickers hardness400–550 MPa
Brinell hardness300–500 MPa
CAS Number7440-06-4
History
DiscoveryAntonio de Ulloa (1735)
Main isotopes of platinum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% stable
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.864% stable
195Pt 33.775% stable
196Pt 25.211% stable
198Pt 7.356% stable
Category Category: Platinum
| references

Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver".[3][4]

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements. It has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.[5]

Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists.

Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.[6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.[7]

As of 2020, the value of platinum is around $32.00 per gram ($1,000 per troy ounce).[8]