radium is a chemical element with the symbol ra and atomic number 88. it is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (ra3n2). all isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas (specifically the isotope radon-222). when radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence.
radium, in the form of radium chloride, was discovered by marie and pierre curie in 1898. they extracted the radium compound from uraninite and published the discovery at the french academy of sciences five days later. radium was isolated in its metallic state by marie curie and andré-louis debierne through the electrolysis of radium chloride in 1911.
in nature, radium is found in uranium and (to a lesser extent) thorium ores in trace amounts as small as a seventh of a gram per ton of uraninite. radium is not necessary for living organisms, and adverse health effects are likely when it is incorporated into biochemical processes because of its radioactivity and chemical reactivity. currently, other than its use in nuclear medicine, radium has no commercial applications; formerly, it was used as a radioactive source for radioluminescent devices and also in radioactive quackery for its supposed curative powers. today, these former applications are no longer in vogue because radium's toxicity has become known, and less dangerous isotopes are used instead in radioluminescent devices.