Rutherfordium

  • rutherfordium, 104rf
    rutherfordium
    pronunciationm/ (about this soundlisten) (for-dee-əm)
    mass number[267]
    rutherfordium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    hf

    rf

    (upo)
    lawrenciumrutherfordiumdubnium
    atomic number (z)104
    groupgroup 4
    periodperiod 7
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2[1][2]
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid (predicted)[1][2]
    melting point2400 k ​(2100 °c, ​3800 °f) (predicted)[1][2]
    boiling point5800 k ​(5500 °c, ​9900 °f) (predicted)[1][2]
    density (near r.t.)23.2 g/cm3 (predicted)[1][2][3]
    atomic properties
    oxidation states(+2), (+3), +4[1][2][3] (parenthesized: prediction)
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 580 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1390 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2300 kj/mol
    • (more) (all but first estimated)[2]
    atomic radiusempirical: 150 pm (estimated)[2]
    covalent radius157 pm (estimated)[1]
    other properties
    natural occurrencesynthetic
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for rutherfordium

    (predicted)[4]
    cas number53850-36-5
    history
    namingafter ernest rutherford
    discoveryjoint institute for nuclear research and lawrence berkeley national laboratory (1964, 1969)
    main isotopes of rutherfordium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    261rf syn 70 s[5] >80% α 257no
    <15% ε 261lr
    <10% sf
    263rf syn 15 min[5] <100% sf
    ~30% α 259no
    265rf syn 1.1 min[6] sf
    266rf syn 23 s? sf
    267rf syn 1.3 h[5] sf
    | references

    rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol rf and atomic number 104, named after new zealand physicist ernest rutherford. as a synthetic element, it is not found in nature and can only be created in a laboratory. it is radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 267rf, has a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours.

    in the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block element and the second of the fourth-row transition elements. it is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 4 elements. chemistry experiments have confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as the heavier homologue to hafnium in group 4. the chemical properties of rutherfordium are characterized only partly. they compare well with the chemistry of the other group 4 elements, even though some calculations had indicated that the element might show significantly different properties due to relativistic effects.

    in the 1960s, small amounts of rutherfordium were produced in the joint institute for nuclear research in the soviet union and at lawrence berkeley national laboratory in california.[7] the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between soviet and american scientists, and it was not until 1997 that international union of pure and applied chemistry (iupac) established rutherfordium as the official name for the element.

  • history
  • isotopes
  • predicted properties
  • experimental chemistry
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Rutherfordium, 104Rf
Rutherfordium
Pronunciationm/ (About this soundlisten) (FOR-dee-əm)
Mass number[267]
Rutherfordium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Hf

Rf

(Upo)
lawrenciumrutherfordiumdubnium
Atomic number (Z)104
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 7
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2[1][2]
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid (predicted)[1][2]
Melting point2400 K ​(2100 °C, ​3800 °F) (predicted)[1][2]
Boiling point5800 K ​(5500 °C, ​9900 °F) (predicted)[1][2]
Density (near r.t.)23.2 g/cm3 (predicted)[1][2][3]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states(+2), (+3), +4[1][2][3] (parenthesized: prediction)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 580 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1390 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2300 kJ/mol
  • (more) (all but first estimated)[2]
Atomic radiusempirical: 150 pm (estimated)[2]
Covalent radius157 pm (estimated)[1]
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for rutherfordium

(predicted)[4]
CAS Number53850-36-5
History
Namingafter Ernest Rutherford
DiscoveryJoint Institute for Nuclear Research and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1964, 1969)
Main isotopes of rutherfordium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
261Rf syn 70 s[5] >80% α 257No
<15% ε 261Lr
<10% SF
263Rf syn 15 min[5] <100% SF
~30% α 259No
265Rf syn 1.1 min[6] SF
266Rf syn 23 s? SF
267Rf syn 1.3 h[5] SF
| references

Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford. As a synthetic element, it is not found in nature and can only be created in a laboratory. It is radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 267Rf, has a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours.

In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block element and the second of the fourth-row transition elements. It is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 4 elements. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as the heavier homologue to hafnium in group 4. The chemical properties of rutherfordium are characterized only partly. They compare well with the chemistry of the other group 4 elements, even though some calculations had indicated that the element might show significantly different properties due to relativistic effects.

In the 1960s, small amounts of rutherfordium were produced in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in the Soviet Union and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California.[7] The priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) established rutherfordium as the official name for the element.