Scandium

  • scandium, 21sc
    scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    scandium
    pronunciationm/ (skan-dee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(sc)44.955908(5)[1]
    scandium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    sc

    y
    calciumscandiumtitanium
    atomic number (z)21
    groupgroup 3
    periodperiod 4
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[ar] 3d1 4s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 9, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1814 k ​(1541 °c, ​2806 °f)
    boiling point3109 k ​(2836 °c, ​5136 °f)
    density (near r.t.)2.985 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)2.80 g/cm3
    heat of fusion14.1 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization332.7 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.52 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +1,[3] +2,[4] +3 (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.36
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 633.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1235.0 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2388.6 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 162 pm
    covalent radius170±7 pm
    van der waals radius211 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of scandium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for scandium
    thermal expansionα, poly: 10.2 µm/(m·k) (at r.t.)
    thermal conductivity15.8 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityα, poly: 562 nΩ·m (at r.t., calculated)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+315.0·10−6 cm3/mol (292 k)[5]
    young's modulus74.4 gpa
    shear modulus29.1 gpa
    bulk modulus56.6 gpa
    poisson ratio0.279
    brinell hardness736–1200 mpa
    cas number7440-20-2
    history
    namingafter scandinavia
    predictiondmitri mendeleev (1871)
    discovery and first isolationlars fredrik nilson (1879)
    main isotopes of scandium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    44m2sc syn 58.61 h it 44sc
    γ 44sc
    ε 44ca
    45sc 100% stable
    46sc syn 83.79 d β 46ti
    γ
    47sc syn 80.38 d β 47ti
    γ
    48sc syn 43.67 h β 48ti
    γ
    category category: scandium
    | references

    scandium is a chemical element with the symbol sc and atomic number 21. a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been classified as a rare-earth element,[6] together with yttrium and the lanthanides. it was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from scandinavia.

    scandium is present in most of the deposits of rare-earth and uranium compounds, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. because of the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, applications for scandium were not developed until the 1970s, when the positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered, and its use in such alloys remains its only major application. the global trade of scandium oxide is 15-20 tonnes per year.[7]

    the properties of scandium compounds are intermediate between those of aluminium and yttrium. a diagonal relationship exists between the behavior of magnesium and scandium, just as there is between beryllium and aluminium. in the chemical compounds of the elements in group 3, the predominant oxidation state is +3.

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Scandium, 21Sc
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Scandium
Pronunciationm/ (SKAN-dee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Sc)44.955908(5)[1]
Scandium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Sc

Y
calciumscandiumtitanium
Atomic number (Z)21
Groupgroup 3
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1814 K ​(1541 °C, ​2806 °F)
Boiling point3109 K ​(2836 °C, ​5136 °F)
Density (near r.t.)2.985 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)2.80 g/cm3
Heat of fusion14.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization332.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1,[3] +2,[4] +3 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.36
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 633.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1235.0 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2388.6 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 162 pm
Covalent radius170±7 pm
Van der Waals radius211 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of scandium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for scandium
Thermal expansionα, poly: 10.2 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity15.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 562 nΩ·m (at r.t., calculated)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+315.0·10−6 cm3/mol (292 K)[5]
Young's modulus74.4 GPa
Shear modulus29.1 GPa
Bulk modulus56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio0.279
Brinell hardness736–1200 MPa
CAS Number7440-20-2
History
Namingafter Scandinavia
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery and first isolationLars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
Main isotopes of scandium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
44m2Sc syn 58.61 h IT 44Sc
γ 44Sc
ε 44Ca
45Sc 100% stable
46Sc syn 83.79 d β 46Ti
γ
47Sc syn 80.38 d β 47Ti
γ
48Sc syn 43.67 h β 48Ti
γ
Category Category: Scandium
| references

Scandium is a chemical element with the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been classified as a rare-earth element,[6] together with yttrium and the lanthanides. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

Scandium is present in most of the deposits of rare-earth and uranium compounds, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. Because of the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, applications for scandium were not developed until the 1970s, when the positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered, and its use in such alloys remains its only major application. The global trade of scandium oxide is 15-20 tonnes per year.[7]

The properties of scandium compounds are intermediate between those of aluminium and yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists between the behavior of magnesium and scandium, just as there is between beryllium and aluminium. In the chemical compounds of the elements in group 3, the predominant oxidation state is +3.