Speed of sound

  • sound measurements
    characteristic
    symbols
     sound pressure p, spl,lpa
     particle velocity v, svl
     particle displacement δ
     sound intensity i, sil
     sound power p, swl, lwa
     sound energy w
     sound energy density w
     sound exposure e, sel
     acoustic impedance z
     audio frequency af
     transmission loss tl

    the speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. at 20 °c (68 °f), the speed of sound in air is about 343 metres per second (1,235 km/h; 1,125 ft/s; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.9 s or a mile in 4.7 s. it depends strongly on temperature as well as the medium through which a sound wave is propagating.

    the speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and composition. the speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior.

    in common everyday speech, speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. however, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: sound travels most slowly in gases; it travels faster in liquids; and faster still in solids. for example, (as noted above), sound travels at 343 m/s in air; it travels at 1,481 m/s in water (almost 4.3 times as fast as in air); and at 5,120 m/s in iron (almost 15 times as fast as in air). in an exceptionally stiff material such as diamond, sound travels at 12,000 metres per second (39,000 ft/s)[1]—about 35 times as fast as in air—which is around the maximum speed that sound will travel under normal conditions.

    sound waves in solids are composed of compression waves (just as in gases and liquids), and a different type of sound wave called a shear wave, which occurs only in solids. shear waves in solids usually travel at different speeds, as exhibited in seismology. the speed of compression waves in solids is determined by the medium's compressibility, shear modulus and density. the speed of shear waves is determined only by the solid material's shear modulus and density.

    in fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a fluid medium (gas or liquid) is used as a relative measure for the speed of an object moving through the medium. the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the fluid is called the object's mach number. objects moving at speeds greater than mach1 are said to be traveling at supersonic speeds.

  • history
  • basic concepts
  • equations
  • dependence on the properties of the medium
  • altitude variation and implications for atmospheric acoustics
  • practical formula for dry air
  • details
  • effect of frequency and gas composition
  • mach number
  • experimental methods
  • non-gaseous media
  • gradients
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Sound measurements
Characteristic
Symbols
 Sound pressure p, SPL,LPA
 Particle velocity v, SVL
 Particle displacement δ
 Sound intensity I, SIL
 Sound power P, SWL, LWA
 Sound energy W
 Sound energy density w
 Sound exposure E, SEL
 Acoustic impedance Z
 Audio frequency AF
 Transmission loss TL

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. At 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound in air is about 343 metres per second (1,235 km/h; 1,125 ft/s; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.9 s or a mile in 4.7 s. It depends strongly on temperature as well as the medium through which a sound wave is propagating.

The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior.

In common everyday speech, speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: sound travels most slowly in gases; it travels faster in liquids; and faster still in solids. For example, (as noted above), sound travels at 343 m/s in air; it travels at 1,481 m/s in water (almost 4.3 times as fast as in air); and at 5,120 m/s in iron (almost 15 times as fast as in air). In an exceptionally stiff material such as diamond, sound travels at 12,000 metres per second (39,000 ft/s)[1]—about 35 times as fast as in air—which is around the maximum speed that sound will travel under normal conditions.

Sound waves in solids are composed of compression waves (just as in gases and liquids), and a different type of sound wave called a shear wave, which occurs only in solids. Shear waves in solids usually travel at different speeds, as exhibited in seismology. The speed of compression waves in solids is determined by the medium's compressibility, shear modulus and density. The speed of shear waves is determined only by the solid material's shear modulus and density.

In fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a fluid medium (gas or liquid) is used as a relative measure for the speed of an object moving through the medium. The ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the fluid is called the object's Mach number. Objects moving at speeds greater than Mach1 are said to be traveling at supersonic speeds.