Sulfur

  • sulfur, 16s
    sulfur-sample.jpg
    sulfur
    alternative namesulphur (british spelling)
    appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
    standard atomic weight ar, std(s)[32.05932.076] conventional: 32.06
    sulfur in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    o

    s

    se
    phosphorussulfurchlorine
    atomic number (z)16
    groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
    periodperiod 3
    blockp-block
    element category  reactive nonmetal
    electron configuration[ne] 3s2 3p4
    electrons per shell2, 8, 6
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point388.36 k ​(115.21 °c, ​239.38 °f)
    boiling point717.8 k ​(444.6 °c, ​832.3 °f)
    density (near r.t.)alpha: 2.07 g/cm3
    beta: 1.96 g/cm3
    gamma: 1.92 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)1.819 g/cm3
    critical point1314 k, 20.7 mpa
    heat of fusionmono: 1.727 kj/mol
    heat of vaporizationmono: 45 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity22.75 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 375 408 449 508 591 717
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a strongly acidic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.58
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 999.6 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 2252 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 3357 kj/mol
    • (more)
    covalent radius105±3 pm
    van der waals radius180 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of sulfur
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureorthorhombic
    orthorhombic crystal structure for sulfur
    thermal conductivity0.205 w/(m·k) (amorphous)
    electrical resistivity2×1015  Ω·m (at 20 °c) (amorphous)
    magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[1]
    magnetic susceptibility(α) −15.5·10−6 cm3/mol (298 k)[2]
    bulk modulus7.7 gpa
    mohs hardness2.0
    cas number7704-34-9
    history
    discoverychinese[3] (before 2000 bce)
    recognized as an element byantoine lavoisier (1777)
    main isotopes of sulfur
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    32s 94.99% stable
    33s 0.75% stable
    34s 4.25% stable
    35s trace 87.37 d β 35cl
    36s 0.01% stable
    category category: sulfur
    | references

    sulfur (in british english, sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol s and atomic number 16. it is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula s8. elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.

    sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on earth. though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient india, ancient greece, china, and egypt. in the bible, sulfur is called brimstone,[4] which means "burning stone".[5] today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. the greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. the element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes.

    sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. many cofactors also contain sulfur, including glutathione, thioredoxin, and iron–sulfur proteins. disulfides, s–s bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.

  • characteristics
  • compounds
  • history
  • production
  • applications
  • biological role
  • precautions
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Sulfur, 16S
Sulfur-sample.jpg
Sulfur
Alternative namesulphur (British spelling)
Appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(S)[32.05932.076] conventional: 32.06
Sulfur in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
O

S

Se
phosphorussulfurchlorine
Atomic number (Z)16
Groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
Periodperiod 3
Blockp-block
Element category  Reactive nonmetal
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electrons per shell2, 8, 6
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point388.36 K ​(115.21 °C, ​239.38 °F)
Boiling point717.8 K ​(444.6 °C, ​832.3 °F)
Density (near r.t.)alpha: 2.07 g/cm3
beta: 1.96 g/cm3
gamma: 1.92 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.819 g/cm3
Critical point1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat of fusionmono: 1.727 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporizationmono: 45 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity22.75 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (a strongly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.58
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 999.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2252 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3357 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius180 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of sulfur
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for sulfur
Thermal conductivity0.205 W/(m·K) (amorphous)
Electrical resistivity2×1015  Ω·m (at 20 °C) (amorphous)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[1]
Magnetic susceptibility(α) −15.5·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[2]
Bulk modulus7.7 GPa
Mohs hardness2.0
CAS Number7704-34-9
History
DiscoveryChinese[3] (before 2000 BCE)
Recognized as an element byAntoine Lavoisier (1777)
Main isotopes of sulfur
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
32S 94.99% stable
33S 0.75% stable
34S 4.25% stable
35S trace 87.37 d β 35Cl
36S 0.01% stable
Category Category: Sulfur
| references

Sulfur (in British English, sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.

Sulfur is the tenth most common element by mass in the universe, and the fifth most common on Earth. Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India, ancient Greece, China, and Egypt. In the Bible, sulfur is called brimstone,[4] which means "burning stone".[5] Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers, and other chemical processes. The element sulfur is used in matches, insecticides, and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gives the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes.

Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. Three amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) and two vitamins (biotin and thiamine) are organosulfur compounds. Many cofactors also contain sulfur, including glutathione, thioredoxin, and iron–sulfur proteins. Disulfides, S–S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers. Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.