Tantalum

  • tantalum, 73ta
    tantalum single crystal and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    tantalum
    pronunciationm/ (tan-təl-əm)
    appearancegray blue
    standard atomic weight ar, std(ta)180.94788(2)[1]
    tantalum in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    nb

    ta

    db
    hafniumtantalumtungsten
    atomic number (z)73
    groupgroup 5
    periodperiod 6
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point3290 k ​(3017 °c, ​5463 °f)
    boiling point5731 k ​(5458 °c, ​9856 °f)
    density (near r.t.)16.69 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)15 g/cm3
    heat of fusion36.57 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization753 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.36 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 3297 3597 3957 4395 4939 5634
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−3, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.5
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 761 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1500 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 146 pm
    covalent radius170±8 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of tantalum
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)[2]
    body-centered cubic crystal structure for tantalum

    α-ta
    crystal structuretetragonal[2]
    tetragonal crystal structure for tantalum

    β-ta
    speed of sound thin rod3400 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion6.3 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity57.5 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity131 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
    magnetic susceptibility+154.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 k)[4]
    young's modulus186 gpa
    shear modulus69 gpa
    bulk modulus200 gpa
    poisson ratio0.34
    mohs hardness6.5
    vickers hardness870–1200 mpa
    brinell hardness440–3430 mpa
    cas number7440-25-7
    history
    discoveryanders gustaf ekeberg (1802)
    recognized as a distinct element byheinrich rose (1844)
    main isotopes of tantalum
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    177ta syn 56.56 h ε 177hf
    178ta syn 2.36 h ε 178hf
    179ta syn 1.82 y ε 179hf
    180ta syn 8.125 h ε 180hf
    β 180w
    180mta 0.012% stable
    181ta 99.988% stable
    182ta syn 114.43 d β 182w
    183ta syn 5.1 d β 183w
    category category: tantalum
    | references

    tantalum is a chemical element with the symbol ta and atomic number 73. previously known as tantalium, it is named after tantalus, a villain from greek mythology.[5] tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. it is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. the chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment, and as a substitute for platinum. its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, dvd players, video game systems and computers. tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the mineral groups tantalite, columbite and coltan (a mix of columbite and tantalite, though not recognised as a separate mineral species).[6] tantalum is considered a technology-critical element.

  • history
  • characteristics
  • chemical compounds
  • occurrence
  • status as a conflict resource
  • production and fabrication
  • applications
  • environmental issues
  • precautions
  • references
  • external links

Tantalum, 73Ta
Tantalum single crystal and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Tantalum
Pronunciationm/ (TAN-təl-əm)
Appearancegray blue
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ta)180.94788(2)[1]
Tantalum in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Nb

Ta

Db
hafniumtantalumtungsten
Atomic number (Z)73
Groupgroup 5
Periodperiod 6
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point3290 K ​(3017 °C, ​5463 °F)
Boiling point5731 K ​(5458 °C, ​9856 °F)
Density (near r.t.)16.69 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)15 g/cm3
Heat of fusion36.57 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization753 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.36 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 3297 3597 3957 4395 4939 5634
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.5
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 761 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1500 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 146 pm
Covalent radius170±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of tantalum
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)[2]
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for tantalum

α-Ta
Crystal structuretetragonal[2]
Tetragonal crystal structure for tantalum

β-Ta
Speed of sound thin rod3400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity57.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity131 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Magnetic susceptibility+154.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[4]
Young's modulus186 GPa
Shear modulus69 GPa
Bulk modulus200 GPa
Poisson ratio0.34
Mohs hardness6.5
Vickers hardness870–1200 MPa
Brinell hardness440–3430 MPa
CAS Number7440-25-7
History
DiscoveryAnders Gustaf Ekeberg (1802)
Recognized as a distinct element byHeinrich Rose (1844)
Main isotopes of tantalum
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
177Ta syn 56.56 h ε 177Hf
178Ta syn 2.36 h ε 178Hf
179Ta syn 1.82 y ε 179Hf
180Ta syn 8.125 h ε 180Hf
β 180W
180mTa 0.012% stable
181Ta 99.988% stable
182Ta syn 114.43 d β 182W
183Ta syn 5.1 d β 183W
Category Category: Tantalum
| references

Tantalum is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. Previously known as tantalium, it is named after Tantalus, a villain from Greek mythology.[5] Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment, and as a substitute for platinum. Its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems and computers. Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the mineral groups tantalite, columbite and coltan (a mix of columbite and tantalite, though not recognised as a separate mineral species).[6] Tantalum is considered a technology-critical element.