Template:Infobox polonium

Polonium, 84Po
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Polonium
Pronunciationm/ (LOH-nee-əm)
Allotropesα, β
Appearancesilvery
Mass number[209]
Polonium in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
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PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
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Te

Po

Lv
bismuthpoloniumastatine
Atomic number (Z)84
Groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
Periodperiod 6
Blockp-block
Element category  Post-transition metal, but this status is disputed
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point527 K ​(254 °C, ​489 °F)
Boiling point1235 K ​(962 °C, ​1764 °F)
Density (near r.t.)alpha: 9.196 g/cm3
beta: 9.398 g/cm3
Heat of fusionca. 13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization102.91 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.4 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)(846)10031236
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, +2, +4, +5,[1] +6 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 812.1 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 168 pm
Covalent radius140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius197 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of polonium
Other properties
Natural occurrencefrom decay
Crystal structurecubic
Cubic crystal structure for polonium

α-Po
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for polonium

β-Po
Thermal expansion23.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity20 W/(m·K) (?)
Electrical resistivityα: 0.40 µΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingnonmagnetic
CAS Number7440-08-6
History
Namingafter Polonia, Latin for Poland, homeland of Marie Curie
DiscoveryPierre and Marie Curie (1898)
First isolationWilly Marckwald (1902)
Main isotopes of polonium
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
208Posyn2.898 yα204Pb
β+208Bi
209Posyn125.2 y[2]α205Pb
β+209Bi
210Potrace138.376 dα206Pb
| references
Po melting point
data m.p. cat
incalc from Cdiffreportref
C254
K5275270
F4894890
WD Edit this at Wikidata
inputC: 254, K: 527, F: 489
comment
Po boiling point
data b.p. cat
incalc from Cdiffreportref
C962
K123512350
F176417640
WD Edit this at Wikidata
inputC: 962, K: 1235, F: 1764
comment
[]  Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image (caption, alt)
Pronunciation
Category (enwiki)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Natural occurrence
Phase at STP
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image
Electron configuration (cmt, ref)
Term symbol * (cmt, ref)
Wikidata *
* Not used in {{Infobox element}} (2019-02-03)
See also {{Infobox element/symbol-to--navbox}}

References

  1. ^ Thayer, John S. (2010). "Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heavier Main Group Elements". Relativistic Methods for Chemists: 78. 10.1007/978-1-4020-9975-5_2. ISBN 978-1-4020-9974-8.
  2. ^ Boutin, Chad. "Polonium's Most Stable Isotope Gets Revised Half-Life Measurement". nist.gov. NIST Tech Beat. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
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