Terbium

  • terbium, 65tb
    terbium-2.jpg
    terbium
    pronunciationm/ (tur-bee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(tb)158.925354(8)[1]
    terbium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    tb

    bk
    gadoliniumterbiumdysprosium
    atomic number (z)65
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide
    electron configuration[xe] 4f9 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1629 k ​(1356 °c, ​2473 °f)
    boiling point3396 k ​(3123 °c, ​5653 °f)
    density (near r.t.)8.23 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)7.65 g/cm3
    heat of fusion10.15 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization391 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity28.91 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1789 1979 (2201) (2505) (2913) (3491)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (a weakly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.2 (?)
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 565.8 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1110 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2114 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 177 pm
    covalent radius194±5 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of terbium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for terbium
    speed of sound thin rod2620 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansionat r.t. α, poly: 10.3 µm/(m·k)
    thermal conductivity11.1 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityα, poly: 1.150 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 k
    magnetic susceptibility+146,000·10−6 cm3/mol (273 k)[3]
    young's modulusα form: 55.7 gpa
    shear modulusα form: 22.1 gpa
    bulk modulusα form: 38.7 gpa
    poisson ratioα form: 0.261
    vickers hardness450–865 mpa
    brinell hardness675–1200 mpa
    cas number7440-27-9
    history
    namingafter ytterby (sweden), where it was mined
    discovery and first isolationcarl gustaf mosander (1843)
    main isotopes of terbium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    157tb syn 71 y ε 157gd
    158tb syn 180 y ε 158gd
    β 158dy
    159tb 100% stable
    category category: terbium
    | references

    terbium is a chemical element with the symbol tb and atomic number 65. it is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. the ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime, and euxenite.

    swedish chemist carl gustaf mosander discovered terbium as a chemical element in 1843. he detected it as an impurity in yttrium oxide, y2o3. yttrium and terbium are named after the village of ytterby in sweden. terbium was not isolated in pure form until the advent of ion exchange techniques.

    terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperatures. as a component of terfenol-d (an alloy that expands and contracts when exposed to magnetic fields more than any other alloy), terbium is of use in actuators, in naval sonar systems and in sensors.

    most of the world's terbium supply is used in green phosphors. terbium oxide is in fluorescent lamps and television and monitor cathode ray tubes (crts). terbium green phosphors are combined with divalent europium blue phosphors and trivalent europium red phosphors to provide trichromatic lighting technology, a high-efficiency white light used for standard illumination in indoor lighting.

  • characteristics
  • history
  • occurrence
  • production
  • applications
  • precautions
  • references
  • external links

Terbium, 65Tb
Terbium-2.jpg
Terbium
Pronunciationm/ (TUR-bee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Tb)158.925354(8)[1]
Terbium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Tb

Bk
gadoliniumterbiumdysprosium
Atomic number (Z)65
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f9 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1629 K ​(1356 °C, ​2473 °F)
Boiling point3396 K ​(3123 °C, ​5653 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.23 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.65 g/cm3
Heat of fusion10.15 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization391 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity28.91 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1789 1979 (2201) (2505) (2913) (3491)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.2 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 565.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1110 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2114 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 177 pm
Covalent radius194±5 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of terbium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for terbium
Speed of sound thin rod2620 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionat r.t. α, poly: 10.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity11.1 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 1.150 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic at 300 K
Magnetic susceptibility+146,000·10−6 cm3/mol (273 K)[3]
Young's modulusα form: 55.7 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 22.1 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 38.7 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.261
Vickers hardness450–865 MPa
Brinell hardness675–1200 MPa
CAS Number7440-27-9
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
Discovery and first isolationCarl Gustaf Mosander (1843)
Main isotopes of terbium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
157Tb syn 71 y ε 157Gd
158Tb syn 180 y ε 158Gd
β 158Dy
159Tb 100% stable
Category Category: Terbium
| references

Terbium is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile, and soft enough to be cut with a knife. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime, and euxenite.

Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander discovered terbium as a chemical element in 1843. He detected it as an impurity in yttrium oxide, Y2O3. Yttrium and terbium are named after the village of Ytterby in Sweden. Terbium was not isolated in pure form until the advent of ion exchange techniques.

Terbium is used to dope calcium fluoride, calcium tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal stabilizer of fuel cells which operate at elevated temperatures. As a component of Terfenol-D (an alloy that expands and contracts when exposed to magnetic fields more than any other alloy), terbium is of use in actuators, in naval sonar systems and in sensors.

Most of the world's terbium supply is used in green phosphors. Terbium oxide is in fluorescent lamps and television and monitor cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Terbium green phosphors are combined with divalent europium blue phosphors and trivalent europium red phosphors to provide trichromatic lighting technology, a high-efficiency white light used for standard illumination in indoor lighting.