Titanium

  • titanium, 22ti
    titan-crystal bar.jpg
    titanium
    pronunciation-/[1] (tay-nee-əm, ty-)
    appearancesilvery grey-white metallic
    standard atomic weight ar, std(ti)47.867(1)[2]
    titanium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    ti

    zr
    scandiumtitaniumvanadium
    atomic number (z)22
    groupgroup 4
    periodperiod 4
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[ar] 3d2 4s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1941 k ​(1668 °c, ​3034 °f)
    boiling point3560 k ​(3287 °c, ​5949 °f)
    density (near r.t.)4.506 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)4.11 g/cm3
    heat of fusion14.15 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization425 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.060 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2, −1, 0,[3] +1, +2, +3, +4[4] (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.54
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 658.8 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1309.8 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2652.5 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 147 pm
    covalent radius160±8 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of titanium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for titanium
    speed of sound thin rod5090 m/s (at r.t.)
    thermal expansion8.6 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity21.9 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity420 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+153.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 k)[5]
    young's modulus116 gpa
    shear modulus44 gpa
    bulk modulus110 gpa
    poisson ratio0.32
    mohs hardness6.0
    vickers hardness830–3420 mpa
    brinell hardness716–2770 mpa
    cas number7440-32-6
    history
    discoverywilliam gregor (1791)
    first isolationjöns jakob berzelius (1825)
    named bymartin heinrich klaproth (1795)
    main isotopes of titanium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    44ti syn 63 y ε 44sc
    γ
    46ti 8.25% stable
    47ti 7.44% stable
    48ti 73.72% stable
    49ti 5.41% stable
    50ti 5.18% stable
    category category: titanium
    | references

    titanium is a chemical element with the symbol ti and atomic number 22. it is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

    titanium was discovered in cornwall, great britain, by william gregor in 1791 and was named by martin heinrich klaproth after the titans of greek mythology. the element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the earth's crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils.[6] the metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the kroll[7] and hunter processes. the most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[8] other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (ticl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (ticl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.[6]

    titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.[6]

    the two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element.[9] in its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense.[10] there are two allotropic forms[11] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46ti through 50ti, with 48ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[12] although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table, titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties.

  • characteristics
  • compounds
  • history
  • production and fabrication
  • applications
  • bioremediation
  • precautions
  • see also
  • references
  • bibliography
  • external links

Titanium, 22Ti
Titan-crystal bar.JPG
Titanium
Pronunciation-/[1] (TAY-nee-əm, ty-)
Appearancesilvery grey-white metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ti)47.867(1)[2]
Titanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Ti

Zr
scandiumtitaniumvanadium
Atomic number (Z)22
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F)
Boiling point3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.506 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.11 g/cm3
Heat of fusion14.15 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization425 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0,[3] +1, +2, +3, +4[4] (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.54
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 658.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1309.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2652.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 147 pm
Covalent radius160±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of titanium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for titanium
Speed of sound thin rod5090 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity21.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity420 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+153.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[5]
Young's modulus116 GPa
Shear modulus44 GPa
Bulk modulus110 GPa
Poisson ratio0.32
Mohs hardness6.0
Vickers hardness830–3420 MPa
Brinell hardness716–2770 MPa
CAS Number7440-32-6
History
DiscoveryWilliam Gregor (1791)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)
Named byMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)
Main isotopes of titanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
44Ti syn 63 y ε 44Sc
γ
46Ti 8.25% stable
47Ti 7.44% stable
48Ti 73.72% stable
49Ti 5.41% stable
50Ti 5.18% stable
Category Category: Titanium
| references

Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils.[6] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll[7] and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[8] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.[6]

Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.[6]

The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element.[9] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense.[10] There are two allotropic forms[11] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[12] Although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table, titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties.