Vanadium

  • vanadium, 23v
    vanadium etched.jpg
    vanadium
    pronunciationm/ (nay-dee-əm)
    appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
    standard atomic weight ar, std(v)50.9415(1)[1]
    vanadium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    v

    nb
    titaniumvanadiumchromium
    atomic number (z)23
    groupgroup 5
    periodperiod 4
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[ar] 3d3 4s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 11, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point2183 k ​(1910 °c, ​3470 °f)
    boiling point3680 k ​(3407 °c, ​6165 °f)
    density (near r.t.)6.11 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)5.5 g/cm3
    heat of fusion21.5 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization444 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity24.89 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 2101 2289 2523 2814 3187 3679
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.63
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 650.9 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1414 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2830 kj/mol
    • (more)
    atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
    covalent radius153±8 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of vanadium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
    body-centered cubic crystal structure for vanadium
    speed of sound thin rod4560 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion8.4 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity30.7 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity197 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+255.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 k)[2]
    young's modulus128 gpa
    shear modulus47 gpa
    bulk modulus160 gpa
    poisson ratio0.37
    mohs hardness6.7
    vickers hardness628–640 mpa
    brinell hardness600–742 mpa
    cas number7440-62-2
    history
    discoveryandrés manuel del río (1801)
    first isolationnils gabriel sefström (1830)
    named bynils gabriel sefström (1830)
    main isotopes of vanadium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    48v syn 16 d β+ 48ti
    49v syn 330 d ε 49ti
    50v 0.25% 1.5×1017 y ε 50ti
    β 50cr
    51v 99.75% stable
    category category: vanadium
    | references

    vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol v and atomic number 23. it is a hard, silvery-grey, malleable transition metal. the elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

    andrés manuel del río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from the greek word for "red", ἐρυθρόν, eruthrón) since upon heating most of the salts turned red. four years later, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by nils gabriel sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, vanadís (freyja). both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. del rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. in 1867 henry enfield roscoe obtained the pure element.

    vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. it is produced in china and russia from steel smelter slag. other countries produce it either from magnetite directly, flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. it is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. the most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. the vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future.

    large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. the oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae.

  • history
  • characteristics
  • chemistry
  • occurrence
  • production
  • applications
  • biological role
  • safety
  • see also
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Vanadium, 23V
Vanadium etched.jpg
Vanadium
Pronunciationm/ (NAY-dee-əm)
Appearanceblue-silver-grey metal
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(V)50.9415(1)[1]
Vanadium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


V

Nb
titaniumvanadiumchromium
Atomic number (Z)23
Groupgroup 5
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 11, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2183 K ​(1910 °C, ​3470 °F)
Boiling point3680 K ​(3407 °C, ​6165 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.11 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.5 g/cm3
Heat of fusion21.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization444 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.89 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2101 2289 2523 2814 3187 3679
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.63
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 650.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1414 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2830 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius153±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of vanadium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for vanadium
Speed of sound thin rod4560 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion8.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity30.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity197 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+255.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[2]
Young's modulus128 GPa
Shear modulus47 GPa
Bulk modulus160 GPa
Poisson ratio0.37
Mohs hardness6.7
Vickers hardness628–640 MPa
Brinell hardness600–742 MPa
CAS Number7440-62-2
History
DiscoveryAndrés Manuel del Río (1801)
First isolationNils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Named byNils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Main isotopes of vanadium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
48V syn 16 d β+ 48Ti
49V syn 330 d ε 49Ti
50V 0.25% 1.5×1017 y ε 50Ti
β 50Cr
51V 99.75% stable
Category Category: Vanadium
| references

Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-grey, malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from the Greek word for "red", ἐρυθρόν, eruthrón) since upon heating most of the salts turned red. Four years later, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element.

Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. It is produced in China and Russia from steel smelter slag. Other countries produce it either from magnetite directly, flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. The vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future.

Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. Particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae.