Xenon

  • xenon, 54xe
    xenon discharge tube.jpg
    a xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue
    xenon
    pronunciation
    • n/[1]
      (zen-on)
    • n/[2]
      (zee-non)
    appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in an electric field
    standard atomic weight ar, std(xe)131.293(6)[3]
    xenon in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    kr

    xe

    rn
    iodinexenoncaesium
    atomic number (z)54
    groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
    periodperiod 5
    blockp-block
    element category  noble gas
    electron configuration[kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 8
    physical properties
    phase at stpgas
    melting point161.40 k ​(−111.75 °c, ​−169.15 °f)
    boiling point165.051 k ​(−108.099 °c, ​−162.578 °f)
    density (at stp)5.894 g/l
    when liquid (at b.p.)2.942 g/cm3[4]
    triple point161.405 k, ​81.77 kpa[5]
    critical point289.733 k, 5.842 mpa[5]
    heat of fusion2.27 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization12.64 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity21.01[6] j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 83 92 103 117 137 165
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0, +1, +2, +4, +6, +8 (rarely more than 0; a weakly acidic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 2.6
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 1170.4 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 2046.4 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 3099.4 kj/mol
    covalent radius140±9 pm
    van der waals radius216 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of xenon
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for xenon
    speed of soundgas: 178 m·s−1
    liquid: 1090 m/s
    thermal conductivity5.65×10−3 w/(m·k)
    magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[7]
    magnetic susceptibility−43.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 k)[8]
    cas number7440-63-3
    history
    discovery and first isolationwilliam ramsay and morris travers (1898)
    main isotopes of xenon
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    124xe 0.095% 1.8×1022 y[9] εε 124te
    125xe syn 16.9 h ε 125i
    126xe 0.089% stable
    127xe syn 36.345 d ε 127i
    128xe 1.910% stable
    129xe 26.401% stable
    130xe 4.071% stable
    131xe 21.232% stable
    132xe 26.909% stable
    133xe syn 5.247 d β 133cs
    134xe 10.436% stable
    135xe syn 9.14 h β 135cs
    136xe 8.857% 2.165×1021 y[10] ββ 136ba
    category category: xenon
    | references

    xenon is a chemical element with the symbol xe and atomic number 54. it is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in earth's atmosphere in trace amounts.[11] although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.[12][13][14]

    xenon is used in flash lamps[15] and arc lamps,[16] and as a general anesthetic.[17] the first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (xe2) as the lasing medium,[18] and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps.[19] xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles[20] and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.[21]

    naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. more than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the solar system.[22] radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135 (a product of nuclear fission), and is the most significant (and unwanted) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.[23]

  • history
  • characteristics
  • occurrence and production
  • isotopes
  • compounds
  • applications
  • precautions
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Xenon, 54Xe
Xenon discharge tube.jpg
A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue
Xenon
Pronunciation
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in an electric field
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Xe)131.293(6)[3]
Xenon in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Kr

Xe

Rn
iodinexenoncaesium
Atomic number (Z)54
Groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
Periodperiod 5
Blockp-block
Element category  Noble gas
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point161.40 K ​(−111.75 °C, ​−169.15 °F)
Boiling point165.051 K ​(−108.099 °C, ​−162.578 °F)
Density (at STP)5.894 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)2.942 g/cm3[4]
Triple point161.405 K, ​81.77 kPa[5]
Critical point289.733 K, 5.842 MPa[5]
Heat of fusion2.27 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization12.64 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity21.01[6] J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 83 92 103 117 137 165
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +4, +6, +8 (rarely more than 0; a weakly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.6
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1170.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2046.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3099.4 kJ/mol
Covalent radius140±9 pm
Van der Waals radius216 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of xenon
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for xenon
Speed of soundgas: 178 m·s−1
liquid: 1090 m/s
Thermal conductivity5.65×10−3 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[7]
Magnetic susceptibility−43.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[8]
CAS Number7440-63-3
History
Discovery and first isolationWilliam Ramsay and Morris Travers (1898)
Main isotopes of xenon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
124Xe 0.095% 1.8×1022 y[9] εε 124Te
125Xe syn 16.9 h ε 125I
126Xe 0.089% stable
127Xe syn 36.345 d ε 127I
128Xe 1.910% stable
129Xe 26.401% stable
130Xe 4.071% stable
131Xe 21.232% stable
132Xe 26.909% stable
133Xe syn 5.247 d β 133Cs
134Xe 10.436% stable
135Xe syn 9.14 h β 135Cs
136Xe 8.857% 2.165×1021 y[10] ββ 136Ba
Category Category: Xenon
| references

Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts.[11] Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.[12][13][14]

Xenon is used in flash lamps[15] and arc lamps,[16] and as a general anesthetic.[17] The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasing medium,[18] and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps.[19] Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles[20] and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.[21]

Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System.[22] Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135 (a product of nuclear fission), and is the most significant (and unwanted) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.[23]