Ytterbium

  • ytterbium, 70yb
    ytterbium-3.jpg
    ytterbium
    pronunciationm/ (tur-bee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white; with a pale yellow tint[1]
    standard atomic weight ar, std(yb)173.045(10)[2][3][4]
    ytterbium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson


    yb

    no
    thuliumytterbiumlutetium
    atomic number (z)70
    groupgroup n/a
    periodperiod 6
    blockf-block
    element category  lanthanide
    electron configuration[xe] 4f14 6s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1097 k ​(824 °c, ​1515 °f)
    boiling point1469 k ​(1196 °c, ​2185 °f)
    density (near r.t.)6.90 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)6.21 g/cm3
    heat of fusion7.66 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization129 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity26.74 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states+1, +2, +3 (a basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.1 (?)
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 603.4 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1174.8 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2417 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
    covalent radius187±8 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of ytterbium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
    face-centered cubic crystal structure for ytterbium
    speed of sound thin rod1590 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansionβ, poly: 26.3 µm/(m·k) (r.t.)
    thermal conductivity38.5 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityβ, poly: 0.250 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic
    magnetic susceptibility+249.0·10−6 cm3/mol (2928 k)[5]
    young's modulusβ form: 23.9 gpa
    shear modulusβ form: 9.9 gpa
    bulk modulusβ form: 30.5 gpa
    poisson ratioβ form: 0.207
    vickers hardness205–250 mpa
    brinell hardness340–440 mpa
    cas number7440-64-4
    history
    namingafter ytterby (sweden), where it was mined
    discoveryjean charles galissard de marignac (1878)
    first isolationcarl auer von welsbach (1906)
    main isotopes of ytterbium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    166yb syn 56.7 h ε 166tm
    168yb 0.126% stable
    169yb syn 32.026 d ε 169tm
    170yb 3.023% stable
    171yb 14.216% stable
    172yb 21.754% stable
    173yb 16.098% stable
    174yb 31.896% stable
    175yb syn 4.185 d β 175lu
    176yb 12.887% stable
    177yb syn 1.911 h β 177lu
    category category: ytterbium
    | references

    ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol yb and atomic number 70. it is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. however, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. in aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

    in 1878, the swiss chemist jean charles galissard de marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for ytterby, the village in sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. he suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium and erbium). in 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by georges urbain, carl auer von welsbach, and charles james. after some discussion, marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. a relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. at present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source.

    natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 3 parts per million. this element is mined in china, the united states, brazil, and india in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. the ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare earth elements; moreover, it is among the least abundant. once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. the metal is a fire and explosion hazard.

  • characteristics
  • occurrence
  • production
  • compounds
  • history
  • applications
  • precautions
  • references
  • further reading
  • external links

Ytterbium, 70Yb
Ytterbium-3.jpg
Ytterbium
Pronunciationm/ (TUR-bee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white; with a pale yellow tint[1]
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Yb)173.045(10)[2][3][4]
Ytterbium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Yb

No
thuliumytterbiumlutetium
Atomic number (Z)70
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1097 K ​(824 °C, ​1515 °F)
Boiling point1469 K ​(1196 °C, ​2185 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.21 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.66 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization129 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3 (a basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.1 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 603.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1174.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2417 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius187±8 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of ytterbium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for ytterbium
Speed of sound thin rod1590 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ, poly: 26.3 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
Thermal conductivity38.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityβ, poly: 0.250 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+249.0·10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[5]
Young's modulusβ form: 23.9 GPa
Shear modulusβ form: 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulusβ form: 30.5 GPa
Poisson ratioβ form: 0.207
Vickers hardness205–250 MPa
Brinell hardness340–440 MPa
CAS Number7440-64-4
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
DiscoveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolationCarl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Main isotopes of ytterbium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
166Yb syn 56.7 h ε 166Tm
168Yb 0.126% stable
169Yb syn 32.026 d ε 169Tm
170Yb 3.023% stable
171Yb 14.216% stable
172Yb 21.754% stable
173Yb 16.098% stable
174Yb 31.896% stable
175Yb syn 4.185 d β 175Lu
176Yb 12.887% stable
177Yb syn 1.911 h β 177Lu
Category Category: Ytterbium
| references

Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium and erbium). In 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. After some discussion, Marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. A relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source.

Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 3 parts per million. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare earth elements; moreover, it is among the least abundant. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard.