Yttrium

  • yttrium, 39y
    yttrium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    yttrium
    pronunciationm/ (it-ree-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(y)88.90584(1)[1]
    yttrium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    sc

    y

    la
    strontiumyttriumzirconium
    atomic number (z)39
    groupgroup 3
    periodperiod 5
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[kr] 4d1 5s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point1799 k ​(1526 °c, ​2779 °f)
    boiling point3203 k ​(2930 °c, ​5306 °f)
    density (near r.t.)4.472 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)4.24 g/cm3
    heat of fusion11.42 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization363 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity26.53 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 1883 2075 (2320) (2627) (3036) (3607)
    atomic properties
    oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.22
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 600 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1180 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 1980 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
    covalent radius190±7 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of yttrium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close packed crystal structure for yttrium
    speed of sound thin rod3300 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansionα, poly: 10.6 µm/(m·k) (at r.t.)
    thermal conductivity17.2 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivityα, poly: 596 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
    magnetic susceptibility+2.15·10−6 cm3/mol (2928 k)[4]
    young's modulus63.5 gpa
    shear modulus25.6 gpa
    bulk modulus41.2 gpa
    poisson ratio0.243
    brinell hardness200–589 mpa
    cas number7440-65-5
    history
    namingafter ytterby (sweden) and its mineral ytterbite (gadolinite)
    discoveryjohan gadolin (1794)
    first isolationheinrich rose (1843)
    main isotopes of yttrium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    87y syn 3.4 d ε 87sr
    γ
    88y syn 106.6 d ε 88sr
    γ
    89y 100% stable
    90y syn 2.7 d β 90zr
    γ
    91y syn 58.5 d β 91zr
    γ
    category category: yttrium
    | references

    yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol y and atomic number 39. it is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element".[5] yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the earth's crust.

    the most important uses of yttrium are leds and phosphors, particularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube displays.[6] yttrium is also used in the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers, superconductors, various medical applications, and tracing various materials to enhance their properties.

    yttrium has no known biological role. exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.[7]

    the name is historical and comes from the village of ytterby, in sweden where, in 1787, the famous chemist arrhenius found a new mineral and named it ytterbite.

  • characteristics
  • history
  • occurrence
  • applications
  • precautions
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • bibliography
  • further reading
  • external links

Yttrium, 39Y
Yttrium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Yttrium
Pronunciationm/ (IT-ree-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Y)88.90584(1)[1]
Yttrium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Sc

Y

La
strontiumyttriumzirconium
Atomic number (Z)39
Groupgroup 3
Periodperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1799 K ​(1526 °C, ​2779 °F)
Boiling point3203 K ​(2930 °C, ​5306 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.472 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.24 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.42 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization363 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.53 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1883 2075 (2320) (2627) (3036) (3607)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.22
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 600 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1180 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius190±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of yttrium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for yttrium
Speed of sound thin rod3300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 10.6 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity17.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 596 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Magnetic susceptibility+2.15·10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[4]
Young's modulus63.5 GPa
Shear modulus25.6 GPa
Bulk modulus41.2 GPa
Poisson ratio0.243
Brinell hardness200–589 MPa
CAS Number7440-65-5
History
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden) and its mineral ytterbite (gadolinite)
DiscoveryJohan Gadolin (1794)
First isolationHeinrich Rose (1843)
Main isotopes of yttrium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
87Y syn 3.4 d ε 87Sr
γ
88Y syn 106.6 d ε 88Sr
γ
89Y 100% stable
90Y syn 2.7 d β 90Zr
γ
91Y syn 58.5 d β 91Zr
γ
Category Category: Yttrium
| references

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element".[5] Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

The most important uses of yttrium are LEDs and phosphors, particularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube displays.[6] Yttrium is also used in the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers, superconductors, various medical applications, and tracing various materials to enhance their properties.

Yttrium has no known biological role. Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.[7]

The name is historical and comes from the village of Ytterby, in Sweden where, in 1787, the famous chemist Arrhenius found a new mineral and named it ytterbite.