Zirconium

  • zirconium, 40zr
    zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
    zirconium
    pronunciationm/ (koh-nee-əm)
    appearancesilvery white
    standard atomic weight ar, std(zr)91.224(2)[1]
    zirconium in the periodic table
    hydrogen helium
    lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
    sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
    potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
    rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
    caesium barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury (element) thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
    francium radium actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium copernicium nihonium flerovium moscovium livermorium tennessine oganesson
    ti

    zr

    hf
    yttriumzirconiumniobium
    atomic number (z)40
    groupgroup 4
    periodperiod 5
    blockd-block
    element category  transition metal
    electron configuration[kr] 4d2 5s2
    electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 10, 2
    physical properties
    phase at stpsolid
    melting point2128 k ​(1855 °c, ​3371 °f)
    boiling point4650 k ​(4377 °c, ​7911 °f)
    density (near r.t.)6.52 g/cm3
    when liquid (at m.p.)5.8 g/cm3
    heat of fusion14 kj/mol
    heat of vaporization591 kj/mol
    molar heat capacity25.36 j/(mol·k)
    vapor pressure
    p (pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
    at t (k) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
    atomic properties
    oxidation states−2, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
    electronegativitypauling scale: 1.33
    ionization energies
    • 1st: 640.1 kj/mol
    • 2nd: 1270 kj/mol
    • 3rd: 2218 kj/mol
    atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
    covalent radius175±7 pm
    color lines in a spectral range
    spectral lines of zirconium
    other properties
    natural occurrenceprimordial
    crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
    hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for zirconium
    speed of sound thin rod3800 m/s (at 20 °c)
    thermal expansion5.7 µm/(m·k) (at 25 °c)
    thermal conductivity22.6 w/(m·k)
    electrical resistivity421 nΩ·m (at 20 °c)
    magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
    young's modulus88 gpa
    shear modulus33 gpa
    bulk modulus91.1 gpa
    poisson ratio0.34
    mohs hardness5.0
    vickers hardness820–1800 mpa
    brinell hardness638–1880 mpa
    cas number7440-67-7
    history
    namingafter zircon, zargun زرگون meaning "gold-colored".
    discoverymartin heinrich klaproth (1789)
    first isolationjöns jakob berzelius (1824)
    main isotopes of zirconium
    iso­tope abun­dance half-life (t1/2) decay mode pro­duct
    88zr syn 83.4 d ε 88y
    γ
    89zr syn 78.4 h ε 89y
    β+ 89y
    γ
    90zr 51.45% stable
    91zr 11.22% stable
    92zr 17.15% stable
    93zr trace 1.53×106 y β 93nb
    94zr 17.38% stable
    96zr 2.80% 2.0×1019 y[4] ββ 96mo
    category category: zirconium
    | references

    zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol zr and atomic number 40. the name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon (the word is related to persian zargun (zircon; zar-gun, "gold-like" or "as gold")), the most important source of zirconium.[5] it is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. zirconium forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. zirconium compounds have no known biological role.

  • characteristics
  • production
  • compounds
  • history
  • applications
  • safety
  • see also
  • references
  • external links

Zirconium, 40Zr
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Zirconium
Pronunciationm/ (KOH-nee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Zr)91.224(2)[1]
Zirconium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Ti

Zr

Hf
yttriumzirconiumniobium
Atomic number (Z)40
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
Boiling point4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.52 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.8 g/cm3
Heat of fusion14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization591 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.36 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.33
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 640.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1270 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2218 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius175±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of zirconium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for zirconium
Speed of sound thin rod3800 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion5.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity22.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity421 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus88 GPa
Shear modulus33 GPa
Bulk modulus91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio0.34
Mohs hardness5.0
Vickers hardness820–1800 MPa
Brinell hardness638–1880 MPa
CAS Number7440-67-7
History
Namingafter zircon, zargun زرگون meaning "gold-colored".
DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Main isotopes of zirconium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
88Zr syn 83.4 d ε 88Y
γ
89Zr syn 78.4 h ε 89Y
β+ 89Y
γ
90Zr 51.45% stable
91Zr 11.22% stable
92Zr 17.15% stable
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% stable
96Zr 2.80% 2.0×1019 y[4] ββ 96Mo
Category Category: Zirconium
| references

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon (the word is related to Persian zargun (zircon; zar-gun, "gold-like" or "as gold")), the most important source of zirconium.[5] It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium compounds have no known biological role.