Enthalpy of vaporization | selected values

Selected values

Elements

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Group →
↓ Period
1 H0.44936 He0.0845
2 Li145.92 Be292.40 B489.7 C355.8 N2.7928 O3.4099 F3.2698 Ne1.7326
3 Na96.96 Mg127.4 Al293.4 Si300 P12.129 S1.7175 Cl10.2 Ar6.447
4 K79.87 Ca153.6 Sc314.2 Ti421 V452 Cr344.3 Mn226 Fe349.6 Co376.5 Ni370.4 Cu300.3 Zn115.3 Ga258.7 Ge330.9 As34.76 Se26.3 Br15.438 Kr9.029
5 Rb72.216 Sr144 Y363 Zr581.6 Nb696.6 Mo598 Tc660 Ru595 Rh493 Pd357 Ag250.58 Cd100 In231.5 Sn295.8 Sb77.14 Te52.55 I20.752 Xe12.636
6 Cs67.74 Ba142 La414 1 asterisk Hf575 Ta743 W824 Re715 Os627.6 Ir604 Pt510 Au334.4 Hg59.229 Tl164.1 Pb177.7 Bi104.8 Po60.1 At27.2 Rn16.4
7 Frn/a Ra37 Acn/a 1 asterisk Rfn/a Dbn/a Sgn/a Bhn/a Hsn/a Mtn/a Dsn/a Rgn/a Cnn/a Nhn/a Fln/a Mcn/a Lvn/a Tsn/a Ogn/a

1 asterisk Ce414 Prn/a Ndn/a Pmn/a Smn/a Eun/a Gdn/a Tbn/a Dyn/a Hon/a Ern/a Tmn/a Ybn/a Lun/a
1 asterisk Th514.4 Pan/a Un/a Npn/a Pun/a Amn/a Cmn/a Bkn/a Cfn/a Esn/a Fmn/a Mdn/a Non/a Lrn/a
 
Enthalpy in kJ/mol, measured at their respective normal boiling points
0–10 kJ/mol 10–100 kJ/mol 100–300 kJ/mol >300 kJ/mol

The vaporization of metals is a key step in metal vapor synthesis, which exploits the increased reactivity of metal atoms or small particles relative to the bulk elements.

Other common substances

Enthalpies of vaporization of common substances, measured at their respective standard boiling points:

Compound Boiling Point at normal pressure Heat of vaporization
(J mol−1)
Heat of vaporization
(J g−1)
Acetone 329 K, 56 °C, 133 °F 31300 538.9
Aluminium 2792 K, 2519 °C, 4566 °F 294000 10500
Ammonia 240 K, −33.34 °C, −28 °F 23350 1371
Butane 272–274 K, −1 °C, 30–34 °F 21000 320
Diethyl ether 307.8 K, 34.6 °C, 94.3 °F 26170 353.1
Ethanol 352 K, 78.37 °C, 173 °F 38600 841
Hydrogen (Parahydrogen) 20.271 K, -252.879 °C, -423.182 °F 899.2 446.1
Iron 3134 K, 2862 °C, 5182 °F 340000 6090
Isopropyl alcohol 356 K, 82.6 °C, 181 °F 44000 732.2
Methane 112 K, −161 °C, −259 °F 8170 480.6
Methanol 338 K, 64.7 °C, 148 °F 35200[3] 1104
Propane 231 K,-42 °C, −44 °F 15700 356
Phosphine 185 K, −87.7 °C, −126 °F 14600 429.4
Water 373.15 K, 100 °C, 212 °F 40660 2257